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LECTURE 10 - HANDOUT0

LECTURE 10 - HANDOUT0 - Denis Kozlov 10 History 2021 RUSN...

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 10 LECTURE 10. Soviet Life in the 1930s. Lydia Chukovskaia and her book Sofia Petrovna 1. Soviet Life in the 1930s 1.1. Everyday life during the late 1930s 1.2. The Stalin cult 1.3. Impact of the international situation on everyday life 2. Lydia Chukovskaia and her Sofia Petrovna 1.1.*** EVERYDAY LIFE ***HUMAN EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND COLLECTIVIZATION: *LABOR LARGE-SCALE INFLUX OF (MILLIONS OF) PEASANTS INTO THE WORKFORCE à INEXPERIENCED LABORERS à FREQUENT BREAKDOWNS OF THE MACHINERY (OFTEN BLAMED ON WRECKERS) + GROWTH OF EDUCATION : 1933-34 – TWICE AS MANY STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS AS IN 1928-29 (2 MILLION VS. 1 MILLION) + EMERGENCY TECHNICAL SCHOOLS ( TECHNICUMS ) MANY FOREIGN SPECIALISTS AND SKILLED WORKERS EMPLOYED (SOME OF THEM – LEFTIST ENTHUSIASTS EAGER TO “BUILD SOCIALISM”). SOMETIMES WERE ACCUSED OF WRECKING AS WELL. + GROWING EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN . CERTAIN PROFESSIONS (MEDICINE, TEACHING – NOW STATE-CONTROLLED, WITH STATE- ADMINISTERED SALARIES) BECOME ALMOST ENTIRELY THE DOMAINS OF WOMEN’S LABOR + VERY HIGH LABOR TURNOVER : WORKERS CAME AND LEFT THE FACTORY ALL THE TIME, OFTEN SEVERAL TIMES A YEAR à à SHORTAGE OF LABOR. INDUSTRIAL MANAGERS BECOME DEPENDENT ON THE WORKERS AND INTERESTED IN HOLDING THE (USUALLY LOW-PAID AND POORLY LODGED) WORKERS IN PLACE AS LONG AS POSSIBLE (ON A POSITIVE NOTE, FULL EMPLOYMENT WAS REACHED. UNEMPLOYMENT ELIMINATED IN CITIES AROUND 1932-33) 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 10 + THE GROWING ROLE OF PRISON LABOR IN THE ECONOMY *HOUSING: + SHARP GROWTH OF THE URBAN POPULATION (INSTEAD OF THE 32.7 MILLION PROJECTED BY THE PLAN, 38.7 MILLION IN 1932) ( ß COLLECTIVIZATION) à à ACUTE SHORTAGE OF URBAN HOUSING. OVERCROWDING. PEOPLE LIVED IN BARRACKS, DUGOUTS, ETC. *CONSUMPTION: CLOSING OF PRIVATE AND SEMI-PRIVATE WORKSHOPS AND STORES, SQUEEZING OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION + EFFECT OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION: DECLINE IN THE WORLD MARKET PRICES OF AGRICULTURAL GOODS à THE USSR HAD TO EXPORT MORE AND MORE TO GET RESOURCES FOR INDUSTRIALIZATION + COLLECTIVIZATION: HEAVY BLOW TO AGRICULTURE + THE STATE COMMANDS AND CHANNELS RESOURCES AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS CHRONIC DISORGANIZATION IN SUPPLIES OF CONSUMER GOODS **** àà THE ECONOMY OF SHORTAGES RATIONING IN PLACE SINCE 1929 RATION PRICES KEPT LOW; YET MARKET PRICES (IN PEASANT BAZAARS, WHICH RESUMED FUNCTIONING SINCE 1931) WENT UP LONG LINES EVERYWHERE; SIGNIFICANT WORSENING IN SERVICE (“THERE IS ONLY ONE OF ME” – TYPICAL RESPONSE OF A SALES CLERK) + “COMMERCIAL” STORES (SINCE 1932) – GOODS SOLD BY THE STATE AT PRICES SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER THAN IN REGULAR STORES WITH RATION COUPONS WIDE DIFFERENCES IN PRICES: 1928-1932: STATE RETAIL PRICES GREW 7.5% IN TOWNS. COMMERCIAL PRICES GREW 769% + PEASANTS MADE TO PAY – ONCE AGAIN: STATE RETAIL PRICES IN THE COUNTRYSIDE WERE MUCH HIGHER THAN IN TOWNS (OFTEN SET AT “COMMERCIAL” LEVELS). AT THE SAME TIME, PROCUREMENT 2
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 10 PRICES, AT WHICH THE STATE BOUGHT AGR. PRODUCTS FROM THE PEASANTS WERE SET VERY LOW.
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