LECTURE 11 - HANDOUT

LECTURE 11 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov 11 History 2021 / RUSN...

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 11 LECTURE 11. The Road to War, 1938-1941 1. Soviet Union and Japan: Situation in the Far East 2. Soviet Union and Germany: The Non-aggression Pact and the division of spheres of influence in Eastern Europe. The Soviet-Finnish War. The annexation of the Baltic States and Bessarabia 3. The Start of the Great Patriotic War: The Year 1941 THE SOVIET UNION WAS GRADUALLY MOVING INTO THE BEGINNING WORLD WAR: ******1. THE FAR EAST 1931-33 – JAPAN OCCUPIES MANCHURIA MANCHUKUO THE KWANTUNG ARMY – ENJOYED CONSIDERABLE AUTONOMY IN THEIR ACTION IN CHINA, DISOBEYING THE GOVERNMENT IN TOKYO AND/OR TAKING THE SITUATION IN THEIR OWN HANDS MANY NATIONALISTIC, AGGRESSIVE OFFICERS MAP SINCE THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR OF 1904-05, RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES HAD BEEN TENSE: MANY RUSSIANS (INCLUDING STALIN) WANTED REVENGE, WHILE MANY JAPANESE POLITICIANS WANTED TO EXPAND THE SPHERE OF JAPANESE INFLUENCE FURTHER TO THE NORTH, INTO RUSSIA THE CHINESE EASTERN RAILWAY – CONTROL TAKEN OVER BY THE JAPANESE (ACCORDING TO THE 1905 RUSSO-JAPANESE PEACE TREATY OF PORTSMOUTH, CONTROL WAS TO REMAIN IN RUSSIAN HANDS) THE SOVIETS FEARED WAR WITH JAPAN, FOR WHICH THEY WERE UNPREPARED . 1931 – OFFERED JAPAN A NON-AGGRESSION PACT. DECEMBER 1932 – JAPAN REFUSED SINCE 1933, TENSIONS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES MOUNTED SOVIET COMMISSAR FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS (1930-1939) – MAXIM LITVINOV (1876-1951) FAVORED COMPROMISE, APPEASEMENT, AND DISARMAMENT + STABLE RELATIONS WITH THE CAPITALIST WEST, ESP. BRITAIN THIS BROUGHT HIM INTO A CONFLICT WITH THE MORE AGGRESSIVE WING IN THE LEADERSHIP, ESPECIALLY VIACHESLAV 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 11 MOLOTOV (AND FROM THE LATE 1930S ON, LITVINOV INCURRED STALIN’S GROWING DISFAVOR) FROM 1931 – MASSIVE REARMAMENT OF THE RED ARMY MIKHAIL TUKHACHEVSKY (SINCE JULY 1931, DEPUTY COMMISSAR FOR MILITARY AFFAIRS) EMPHASIS ON MECHANIZATION AND DEEP-PENETRATION CAPACITY OF THE ARMED FORCES – TANKS AND AIRCRAFT GIVEN FIRST PRIORITY VASILII BLIUKHER – COMMANDER OF THE FAR EASTERN ARMY INTENSE PREPARATION FOR WAR WITH JAPAN: MASSIVE ENLARGEMENT AND RE-EQUIPMENT OF THE SOVIET FAR EASTERN ARMY – TANKS, AIRCRAFT, ARTILLERY, ADDITIONAL INFANTRY THE FAR EASTERN ARMY BROUGHT UP TO AT LEAST 200,000 MEN BY THE END OF 1934 – AGAINST THE JAPANESE 70,000 ACROSS THE BORDER. + THE JAPANESE WERE FAR BEHIND THE RED ARMY IN MECHANIZING AND MODERNIZING THEIR ARMED FORCES + THE BUILD-UP OF THE SOVIET PACIFIC FLEET (WHICH, HOWEVER, UNLIKE THE ARMY, WAS VASTLY INFERIOR TO ITS JAPANESE COUNTERPAPT) THE SOVIET UNION FEARED, AND WANTED TO AVOID BY ALL MEANS, A WAR ON TWO FRONTS – AGANST NAZI GERMANY AND JAPAN 1933 – THE U.S. RECOGNIZES THE USSR 1934 – THE USSR JOINS THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 1935 – MUTUAL SECURITY PACT BETWEEN THE USSR AND FRANCE THE SOVIET UNION HOPES TO STENGTHEN ITS POSITIONS BOTH IN EUROPE (AGAINST NAZI GERMANY) AND IN THE FAR EAST (AGAINST
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2010 for the course HIST 2022 taught by Professor Dkozlov during the Winter '10 term at Dalhousie.

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LECTURE 11 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov 11 History 2021 / RUSN...

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