LECTURE 12 - HANDOUT

LECTURE 12 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov 12 History 2021 / RUSN...

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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 12 LECTURE 12. The Great Patriotic War: from the winter of 1941 to 1945 1. Leningrad: the Blockade 2. Life in the occupied territories 3. The summer 1942 German offensive 4. The battle of Stalingrad 5. Soviet industry at war. Western economic aid: Lend-lease 6. The Soviet Union and the Western Allies: Military partnership 7. The battle of Kursk: July 1943 8. Soviet offensive in Ukraine and the liberation of Kiev. The battle of Korsun 9. Collaboration in the German-occupied territories 10. Operation “Bagration” 11. Soviet offensive in the Baltic states and Eastern Europe: 1944-45 12. The Yalta Conference and the plans for postwar order 13. The battles of Berlin and Prague: the defeat of Nazi Germany 14. The defeat of Japan in 1945 15. The cost of victory 1. *** THE BLOCKADE (SIEGE) OF LENINGRAD THE FALL OF 1941 – THE CITY ENCIRCLED BY THE GERMAN AND FINNISH FORCES. THE BLOCKADE BEGAN. LASTED UNTIL 1944 MASSIVE AIR STRIKES FOOD WAREHOUSES DESTROYED. THE CITY ADMINISTRATION HAD MADE THE MISTAKE OF CONCENTRATING NEARLY ALL FOD SUPPLY IN ONE COMPLEX OF WAREHOUSES (THE BODAYEVO WAREHOUSES) AFTER THE WAREHOUSES WERE DESTROYED, THE CITY WAS LEFT WITH VERY SCARCE FOOD SUPPLY, AND PRACTICALLY NO OPPORTUNITIES TO REPLENISH IT THE CITY WAS NOT SURRENDERED, AND ARMY UNITS DEFENDING IT CONTINUED TO FIGHT WINTER OF 1941-1942 – THE WORST FOR LENINGRAD. THE ONLY LINE OF SUPPLY – THE SO-CALLED “LIFE ROAD” (ACROSS THE ICE OF LAKE LADOGA; CONSTANTLY BOMBED BY THE GERMANS) NO WATER SUPPLY, NO HEATING SEVERE FOOD RATIONING – THE ONLY FOOD PER DAY THAT WAS AVAILABLE WAS 125 GRAMS OF BREAD + TO GET IT, YOU HAD TO STAND IN LINE. MANY DIED IN LINES; MANY DIED IN THE HOUSES BECAUSE THEY COULD NOT WALK, OUT OF EXHAUSTION 1
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Denis Kozlov History 2021 / RUSN 2023 Soviet Russia LECTURE 12 DEAD CITY: HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS DIED OF HUNGER AND FROZE TO DEATH. OVERALL DURING THE BLOCKADE, OVER 1 MILLION PEOPLE (ALL OF THEM CIVILIANS) DIED IN LENINGRAD (OUT OF THE PRE-WAR POPULATION OF ABOUT 2.5 MILLION ) ONLY IN 1943, AFTER MANY DEFEATED ATTEMPTS, WAS THE BLOCKADE BREACHED, AND THE SITUATION WITH SUPPLIES BECAME SOMEWHAT BETTER. THE GERMANS FINALLY RETREATED FROM THE CITY ONLY IN THE WINTER-SPRING OF 1944 2.***LIFE IN THE OCCUPATION THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES – ESPECIALLY UKRAINE – WERE TO SERVE AS THE BREADBASKET OF THE GERMAN REICH MASSIVE DRAINING OF RESOURCES (UP TO THE CUTTING THE MOST FERTILE LAYERS OF BLACK SOIL AND TRANSPORTING THEM TO GERMANY) MERCILESS POLICIES TOWARD THE CIVILIAN POPULATION UNMITIGATED AND RUTHLESS REPRESSION. PERCEIVING THE SLAVS AS RACIALLY INFERIOR, THE GERMANS HAD NO RESPECT FOR THEIR CULTURE + THE COLLECTIVE FARMS LARGELY KEPT IN PLACE (CONTRARY TO THE HOPES OF MANY PEASANTS) – THIS WAY, IT WAS EASIER TO CONTROL THE “NATIVES” + THE HOLOCAUST – IN FULL SWING IN THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES SS EINSATZGRUPPEN HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF JEWS KILLED (OVERALL, 1,500,000 JEWS
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LECTURE 12 - HANDOUT - Denis Kozlov 12 History 2021 / RUSN...

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