bio_200_final_exam_study_sheet - MICROSCOPES Light live cells limit of rez(0.2microns Fluorescence live cells highlights structures Confocal laser beam

bio_200_final_exam_study_sheet - MICROSCOPES Light live...

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MICROSCOPES - Light: live cells, limit of rez (0.2microns); Fluorescence: live cells, highlights structures; Confocal: laser beam as light source; Transmission EM: dead cells, 2D; SEM: dead cells, 3D (surfaces); BASES: pyrimidine (C/T/U), purine (A/G – double rings); AMINO ACIDS: Basic Side Chains : Lysine (Lys), Arginine (Arg) very basic because pos. charge stabilized by resonance, Histidine (His)—contain N groups ; Acidic Side Chains : Asparatic acid (Asp), Glutamic acid (Glu)—contains C=O and C-O - ; Uncharged Polar : Asparagine (Asn), Glutamine (Gln) these 2 C=O and NH2, Serine (Ser), Threonine (Thr), Tyrosine (Tyr) these have polar OH group ; Nonpolar : Alanine (Ala), Valine (Val), Leucine (Leu), Isoleucine (Ile), Proline (Pro), Phenylalanine (Phe), Methionine (Met), Tryptophan (Trp), Glycine (Gly), Cysteine (Cys) can form disulfide bonds b/ w 2 cysteine side chains; Nuclear Localization Signal + nuclear import receptor = transport into nucleus via nuclear pores; Chromatin = proteins + DNA ( euchromatin : less condensed, actively transcribed; heterochromatin : condensed); Nucleosome = histone (+ve charged aas) octamer ([H2A + H2B + H3 + H4]x2)+ DNA (linker too?); telomere: allow end of chromosomes to be replicated; centromere: centre of chromosome where mitotic spindles attach; mRNA processing : capping (5’ end addition of guanine (G) w/ methyl group), poly-A tail (3’ end), slicing (introns removed – gene variation;
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