Epistemology Revised

Epistemology Revised - Epistemology How can we gain...

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1 Epistemology Epistemology How can we gain knowledge on sociotechnical dynamics?
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2 On Ways of Knowing “In his pursuit of knowledge, man has employed certain approaches to knowing. It is generally agreed that there are four such approaches: faith, authority, intuition, and the scientific method.” - Vincent Cangelosi , 1967
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3 On Ways of Knowing Tenacity (persistence of a superstition) Intuition (acquiring knowledge without reasoning or inferring) Authority (acceptance of information from a highly respected source) Rationalism (reasoning) Empiricism (experience) Science (a method or logic of inquiry) - from Helmstadter (1970)
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4 On Ways of Knowing “Before proceeding to the question of what distinguishes science from other ways of knowing, let me clarify my attitude towards nonscientific research strategies. I believe that science is a superior way for human beings to obtain knowledge about the world in which we live.” - Marvin Harris, 1980
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5 What is Science? L. scientia , to know The foundation of a theory of truth Science is NOT technology (from techne , craft) – it is “knowing that” rather than “know how” It is central to the broad-scale social paradigm of the past several centuries (The Modern Age)
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6 Fact vs. Fancy “The importance of distinguishing knowledge from unsupported opinion is obvious when we realize that much of what we once took as knowledge has no basis in fact .” - Velasquez, 1991 The belief in facts implicitly posits the existence of objective reality (the universe exists independent of personal subjective experience)
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Overview of the Modern Scientific Method
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Roots in Ancient Greece The heliocentric model of the universe The atomic model of matter Conservation of mass Integral calculus Biological evolution Relativity Logic … all were alluded to by the “ancients.”
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9 Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen, 965–1039)
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Sir Isaac Newton 10 The most influential scientific writing in history. Formalized the Copernican Revolution, set out the first universal law.
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11 Fundamental Assumption
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Epistemology Revised - Epistemology How can we gain...

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