Chapter13 - Chapter 13 Artificial Intelligence Artificial...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 13 Artificial Intelligence
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Artificial Intelligence Artificial : humanly contrived often on a natural model Intelligence : the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria Clearly, intelligence is an internal characteristic . How can it be identified?
Background image of page 2
3 Thinking Machines A computer can do some things better --and certainly faster--than a human can: Adding a thousand four-digit numbers Counting the distribution of letters in a book Searching a list of 1,000,000 numbers for duplicates Matching finger prints
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 Thinking Machines BUT a computer would have difficulty pointing out the cat in this picture, which is easy for a human. Artificial intelligence (AI) The study of computer systems that attempt to model and apply the intelligence of the human mind. Figure 13.1 A computer might have trouble identifying the cat in this picture.
Background image of page 4
5 In the beginning… In 1950 Alan Turing wrote a paper titled Computing Machinery And Intelligence , in which he proposed to consider the question Can machines think? But the question is “loaded” so he proposed to replace it with what has since become known as the Turing Test. Can a machine play the Imitation Game?
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
6 The Imitation Game Skip detailed description
Background image of page 6
7 The Imitation Game The 'imitation game' is played with three people, a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The interrogator stays in a room apart from the other two. The object of the game for the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the man and which is the woman.
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
8 The Imitation Game The interrogator is allowed to put questions to A and B. It is A's object in the game to try and cause C to make the wrong identification. The object of the game for the third player (B) is to help the interrogator.
Background image of page 8
9 The Imitation Game We now ask the question, ' What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game? ' Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
10 The Imitation Game
Background image of page 10
11 The Turing Test (objections) There are authors who question the validity of the Turing test. The objections tend to be of 2 types. The first is an attempt to distinguish degrees, or types of equivalence…
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
12 The Turing Test (objections) Weak equivalence: Two systems (human and computer) are equivalent in results (output), but they do not arrive at those results in the same way. Strong equivalence: Two systems (human and computer) use the same internal processes to produce results.
Background image of page 12
13 The Turing Test (objections) The Turing Test, they argue, can demonstrate weak equivalence , but not strong. So even if a computer passes the test we won’t be able to say that it thinks like a human . Of course, neither they, nor anyone else, can explain
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 07/16/2010 for the course CSE CSE 1520 taught by Professor Paul during the Spring '09 term at York University.

Page1 / 70

Chapter13 - Chapter 13 Artificial Intelligence Artificial...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 14. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online