Chapter 11 – The Basic Principals of Heredity

Chapter 11 – The Basic Principals of...

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Chapter 11 – The Basic Principals of Heredity I) Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance a. Background i. Two Concepts Already Accepted 1. All hybrid plants that are the offspring of genetically pure or true breeding, parents are similar in appearance 2. When These hybrids mate with each other, they do not breed true; their offspring show a mixture of traits ii. Pea Plants Advantages 1. Easy to grow 2. Many varieties were available 3. Controlled pollination was easy 4. Pea plants have both male and female parts and naturally self-pollinate b. Definitions i. Phenotype 1. Physical appearance of an organism ii. Character 1. The attributes for which heritable differences, or traits, are known iii. Parental Generation 1. P Generation is usually pure individuals iv. F-1 Generation
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1. 1 st filial generation v. F-2 Generation 1. 2 nd filial generation vi. Alleles 1. Alternative forms of a gene 2. Genes that govern variations of the same character and occupy corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes vii. Dominant 1. The allele that is expressed and repressed the recessive allele viii. Recessive 1. The allele that is masked by the dominant allele I I) Alleles Separate Before Gametes are Formed: Principle of Segregation a. Before sexual reproduction occurs, the two alleles carried by an individual parent must become separated b. Alleles Occupy Corresponding Loci on Homologous Chromosomes i. Homologous chromosomes usually have the same size, shape, and genes located at corresponding locations ii. Locus 1. The location of a particular gene on the chromosome 2. Segment of the DNA controlling some aspect of the structure or function of the organism
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c. Monohybrid Cross Involves Individuals with Different Alleles of A Given Locus i. The inheritance of two different alleles of a single locus ii. Homozygous 1. Two alleles for the locus is identical iii. Heterozygous 1. Carry two different alleles for the locus iv. Test Cross can Detect Heterozygosity 1. Test Cross a. Individual with an unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual d. Dihybrid Cross Involves Individuals that have Different
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Chapter 11 – The Basic Principals of...

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