Chapter 12 – DNA

Chapter 12 – DNA - Chapter 12 DNA The...

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Chapter 12 – DNA: The Carrier of Genetic Information I) DNA is the transforming Principle in Bacteria a. Transformation i. Type of permanent genetic change in which the properties of one strain of dead cells are conferred on a different strain of living cells 1. Griffith, mice, virulent S cells, avirulent R cells 2. Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty identified the material transformed was DNA b. DNA Is the Genetic Material In Certain Viruses i. Hershey and Chase Experiment 1. Labeled viral protein with radioactive isotope of sulfur and labeled viral DNA with radioactive isotope of phosphate 2. Bacteriophages attached to bacteria 3. Centrifuged the bacteria 4. Found protein with radioactive isotope of sulfur in supernatant a. Signified that the protein did not go into the bacteria 5. Found DNA in the bacteria (in the pellet) DNA had entered the cell ii. Conclusion of Hershey and Chase 1. Emphasized the significance of DNA in viral reproduction and DNA’s role as hereditary material II) HISTORY OF THE DNA DISCOVERIES a. Page 263 Table 12-1
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III) Structure of DNA a. Nucleotides Can Be Covalently Linked in Any Order to Form Long Polymers i. DNA 1. Consists of pentose, sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate and one of four nitrogenous bases a. Purines i. Adenine ii. Guanine b. Pyrimidines i. Thymine ii. Cytosine 2. Nitrogenous base is attached to the 1’ carbon of the sugar and the phosphate is attached to the 5’ carbon b. Chargoff’s Rules i. Number of purines equals the number of pyrimindines 1. A = T 2. G = C c. DNA Is Made of Two Polynucleotide Chains Intertwined To
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