CH 2 notes organic Molecules part two

CH 2 notes organic Molecules part two - Chapter Two The...

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1 Chapter Two The Chemical Level of Organization Part Two CARBON COMPOUNDS After discussing this section you will be able to: 1. Define organic compound and name three elements often found in organic compounds. 2. Explain why carbon forms so many different compounds. 3. Define functional group and explain it significance. 4. Compare a condensation reaction with hydrolysis. What are organic compounds and why are they so important?
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2 Organic compounds- contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other carbon atoms and to other elements as well—typically hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. What is carbon bonding? Carbon- has four electrons in its outer orbital used to bond with other elements, it readily forms 4 covalent bonds, forms straight chains or rings, also forms single, double and triple bonds. What is used to show a covalent bond? What is a covalent bond? What is it called when only one pair of electrons are being shared? Single bond- is only one pair of electrons are being shared. Double bond- is when two pairs of electrons are being shared. Triple bond- is when three pairs of electrons are being shared. Functional Groups: What are functional groups? Functional groups- are cluster of organic compound’s atoms that influence the properties of the molecules they compose.
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3 Functional group- is the structural building block that determines the characteristics of the compound. One functional group important to living things, the hydroxyl group, - OH. What is an alcohol and why is it important? Alcohol- is an organic compound with a hydroxyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms, making it a polar molecule & have properties similar to water such as hydrogen bonding. Ex: Ethanol- found in alcoholic beverages, it kills liver and brain cell. Methanol- can cause blindness or even death. Large Carbon Molecules What is a monomer? Monomer- is a repeated, single- molecule unit. What is many monomers linked together called? Polymer- consists of many monomers linked together. What is a macromolecule? Macromolecule- are large polymers. Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction called a condensation reaction. What is a condensation reaction?
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4 Condensation reaction- is when two sugar molecules (glucose and fructose) combine to form the sugar sucrose and water as a bi- product.
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2010 for the course 119:101 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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CH 2 notes organic Molecules part two - Chapter Two The...

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