chapter3_part1

chapter3_part1 - Biological Molecules: The Carbon Compounds...

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Biological Molecules: The Carbon Compounds of Life Chapter 3
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Why It Matters CO 2 and photosynthesis Fig. 3-1, p. 42
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3.1 Carbon Bonding Carbon chains and rings form the backbones of all biological molecules
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Carbon Bonding Organic molecules based on carbon Each carbon atoms forms 4 bonds Allows for a great variety of molecular shapes p. 43
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Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons Molecules of carbon linked only to hydrogen Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon CH 4 = 1 carbon + 4 hydrogens
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Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon linear chains Ethane = C 2 H 6 Propane = C 3 H 8 Butane = C 4 H 10 Hydrocarbon branched chain
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Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon rings. Cyclohexane = C 6 H 12
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Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons can also have double or triple bonds between the carbons
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Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are usually the wastes or decomposition products of living systems Other organic molecules in living organisms contain elements in addition to C and H Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
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3.2 Functional Groups in Biological Molecules The hydroxyl group is a key component of alcohols The carbonyl group is the reactive part of aldehydes and ketones The carboxyl group forms organic acids
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3.2 (cont.) The amino group acts as an organic base The phosphate group is a reactive jack-of-all- trades The sulfhydryl group works as a molecular fastener
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Functional Groups Small, reactive groups of atoms attached to organic molecules Their covalent bonds are more easily broken or rearranged than other parts of the molecules
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Functional Groups Table 3-1a, p. 44
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Functional Groups Table 3-1b, p. 44
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Animation: Functional groups
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Dehydration In a dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction , an —OH and —H group are removed from two subunits to join them together Fig. 3-2a, p. 44
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Fig. 3-2a, p. 44 a. Dehydration synthesis reactions The components of a water molecule are removed as subunits join into a larger molecule.
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H OH H Fig. 3-2a, p. 44 Dehydration synthesis The components of a water molecule are removed as subunits join into a larger molecule. Stepped Art
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chapter3_part1 - Biological Molecules: The Carbon Compounds...

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