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Chapter 11 - States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces

Chapter 11 - States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces -...

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Chapter 11 Notes I) Intermolecular Forces and the States of Matter a. Intermolecular Forces i. Forces that exist between molecules ii. Determine the macroscopic physical properties of liquids and solids b. Intramolecular Forces i. Forces that exist between atoms in a molecules II) Vaporization and Vapor Pressure a. Vaporization i. Conversion of a liquid to a gas ii. Surface molecules having enough KE in excess of this average to overcome the intermolecular attractive forces of neighboring molecules in and below the surface fly off into the gaseous state: they vaporize b. Enthalpy (Heat) of Vaporization i. The quantity of heat that must be absorbed to vaporize a given amount of liquid at a constant temperature ii. Vaporization is an endothermic process iii. Condensation is exothermic process c. Vapor Pressure i. Dynamic Equilibrium 1. No change is seen in the system at the macroscopic level but molecules continue to vaporize and condense ii. Vapor Pressure Definition
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1. The partial pressure exerted by its vapor in dynamic equilibrium with the liquid at constant temperature 2. Vapor Pressure Increase with Temperature !!!!!!*!*!*!*! *!*!*! 3. Smaller the vapor volume, greater the surface area of the liquid, the faster equilibrium is reached a. Depends only what the liquid is and on the equilibrium temperature 4. Volatile and Nonvolatile a. The weaker the intermolecular forces i. The liquid is Volatile (high vapor pressure at equilibrium) b. Strong Intermolecular forces i. The liquid is Nonvolatile (low vapor pressure at equilibrium) d. Boiling Point i. Definition 1. The temperature at which tits vapor pressure becomes equal to prevailing atmospheric pressure 2. Point at which vaporization occurs not only at the surface but throughout the liquid 3. Once boiling point is reached, the temperature cannot rise above the boiling point 4. Normal Boiling Point a. Temperature at which a liquid boils at 1 atm e. Critical Point i. Critical Temperature
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1. The highest temperature at which a liquid and vapor can coexist in equilibrium as physically distinct states of matter ii. Critical Pressure 1. The vapor pressure at the critical point f. Super Critical Fluids i. Density of the fluid is close to that of a typical fluid but its ability to flow and diffuse is more like that of a typical gas III) Phase Changes Involving Solids LOOK AT FIGURE 11.7 and 11.8 Page 444 a. Melting, Melting Point, and Heat of Fusion i. Melting or Fusion 1. Conversion of a solid to a liquid 2. Melting Point a. Temperature at which a solid melts ii. Freezing 1. Conversion of a liquid to a solid 2. When freezing begins, the temperature of the liquid
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