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Chapter 2 TAVSS

Chapter 2 TAVSS - CHEM 161-2007 CHAPTER 2 ATOMS MOLECULES...

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CHEM 161-2007 CHAPTER 2 - ATOMS, MOLECULES AND IONS PRACTICE PROBLEMS DR. ED TAVSS Fundamental chemical laws Nature of the atom (protons, neutrons, electrons, symbols, etc.) including isotopes Periodic table (Also, see Chapter 7 - Periodic Table Trends) Nomenclature (naming) Organic compounds 1
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FUNDAMENTAL CHEMICAL LAWS 21 Chem 161-2006 Exam I Hill, Petrucci et al., 4 th edition Chapter 2 – Atoms, molecules and ions Fundamental chemical laws When 10.00 g of arsenic reacts with excess oxygen, a compound of arsenic and oxygen with a mass of 15.35 g is formed. What mass of oxygen reacted? As + O 2 As m O n 10.00g ?g 15.35g According to the law of conservation of mass, the 10.00g of As reactant must go into the product, assuming that the reaction went to completion. Since the product only contains As and O, then the balance of the 15.35g, i.e., 5.35g, must be oxygen. A. 0.200 g B. 5.35 g C. 32.0 g D. 96.0 g E. Not enough information is given to answer this question. B 6. Chem 161-2004 Exam I Zumdahl 6 th edition Chapter 2 Fundamental Chemical Laws Rutherford’s experiment was important because it showed that: A. radioactive elements give off alpha particles B. gold foil can be made only a few atoms thick C. the neutron is slightly heavier than the proton D. the mass of an atom is uniformly distributed throughout the atom 2
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E . an atom is mostly empty space If the particles within an atom were distributed evenly (the “plum pudding” model), then the alpha particles that Rutherford used to bombard the aluminum foil would have met virtually no resistance, and would have gone fairly straight through the aluminum foil. However, since the vast majority of alpha particles passed straight through the aluminum foil, but a very small number of alpha particles didn’t pass through the aluminum foil then this indicated that the atoms in the aluminum foil consisted of some very dense small units within a lot of empty space. 16. Chem 161-2004 Exam I Zumdahl 6 th edition Chapter 2 Fundamental Chemical Laws The charge to mass ratio of an electron is –1.76 x 10 8 C/g and the charge of an electron is –1.602 x 10 -19 C. The mass of the electron is A . 9.10 x 10 -28 g B. 9.11 x 10 -31 g C. 1.11 x 10 -27 g D. 1.11 x 10 27 g E. 1.11 x 10 -28 g Use a simple proportion: -1.76 x 10 8 C/g = -1.602 x 10 -19 C/Xg X = 9.10 x 10 -28 g 3
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18 Chem 161-2004 Exam I Zumdahl 6 th edition Chapter 2 Fundamental chemical laws The Law of Multiple Proportions works because B . Atoms combine only in whole number ratios. A. True, but irrelevant. B. This is the essence of the Law of Multiple Proportions. C. True, but irrelevant. D. Gibberish; this has no meaning.
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