02 - New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispphere, 2200 - 250 B.C.E.

02 - New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispphere, 2200 - 250 B.C.E.

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Chapter 2 - New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, 2200—250 B . C . E . I1. Early China, ca. 2000–221 B . C . E . B1. Geography and Resources 21. China is divided into two major geographical regions: the steppe h& &; , desert, and high plateau west and northwest; and the eastern zone, more suitable for settled agriculture. 32. The eastern zone is subdivided into two areas: north and south. The northern area includes the Yellow River Valley and has a dry, cold climate ; the southern area includes the Yangzi Valley, has plentiful rainfall, and is relatively warm. 43. China’s natural resources include timber, stone, and metals. The loess soil and ; rice may be cultivated in the warmer and rainier south. 54. Agriculture in this region required the coordinated effort of large numbers of people. C6. The Shang Period, ca. 1750–1027 B . C . E . 75. Pre-Shang China was a land of Neolithic communities. Pigs, chickens, and millet were domesticated, silk textiles developed, and bronze metallurgy begun (ca. 2000 B . C . E .) 86. There are no contemporary documents to confirm the existence of the legendary Xia dynasty. Later documents concerning the Xia may be referring to one of the late Neolithic societies of the Yellow River Valley. 97. The Shang dynasty had its origins in the Yellow River Valley and later expanded to i nclude territory from Mongolia to Gansu and south to the Yangzi Valley. The Shang kings ruled directly over the core area of their kingdom and exercised indirect rule over peripheral areas. 108. Shang kings carried out military campaigns against nomadic enemies and engaged in a far-flung commerce that may even have included some indirect trade with Mesopotamia. The kings worshiped the spirits of male ancestors, practiced divination and sacrifice, and presented themselves as intermediaries between the gods and the human world. (7 ± ²· “ ), the use of water buffalo as draft animals, and extensive civil engineering projects. 1210. The Chinese writing system (Chinese characters) developed during the Shang period. The Chinese writing system of today is directly related to the
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writing of the Shang dynasty. The chief written remains are oracle bones used in divination. D13. The Zhou period, 1027–221
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02 - New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispphere, 2200 - 250 B.C.E.

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