03 - The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000 - 500 B.C.E.

03 - The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000 - 500 B.C.E. -...

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CHAPTER 4 The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000–500 B . C . E . I0. The Cosmopolitan Middle East, 1700–1100 B . C . E . A0. Western Asia 10. In the southern portion of western Asia, the Kassites ruled Babylonia during this period. Babylonia did not pursue territorial conquest. In the north, the Assyrians had their origins in the northern Tigris area. They were involved in trade in tin and silver. 20. The Hittites had their capital in Anatolia, used horse-drawn chariots, and had access to important copper, silver, and iron deposits. 30. During the second millennium B . C . E . Mesopotamian political and cultural concepts spread across much of western Asia. B0. New Kingdom Egypt 10. The New Kingdom period was preceded by the decline of the Middle Kingdom and by the subsequent period of rule by the non-Egyptian Hyksos. A native Egyptian dynasty overthrew the Hyksos to begin the New Kingdom period. This period was characterized by aggressive expansion into Syria-Palestine and into Nubia. 20. Innovations during the New Kingdom period include Queen Hatsheput’s attempt to open direct trade with Punt and Akhenaten’s construction of a new capital at Amarna. Akhenaten also made Aten the supreme deity of Egypt and carried out a controversial reform program. 30. The general Haremhab seized power in 1323 B . C . E . and established a new dynasty, the Ramessides. The Ramessides renewed the policy of conquest and expansion neglected by Akhenaten and their greatest king, Ramesses II (r. 1290– 1224 B . C . E .), dominated his age. C0. Commerce and Communication 10. The Syria-Palestine area was an important crossroads for the trade in metals. For this reason, the Egyptians and the Hittites fought battles and negotiated territorial agreements concerning control over Syria-Palestine. 20. Access to metals was vital to all bronze-age states, but metals, including copper and tin for bronze, often had to be obtained from faraway places. The demand for metals spurred the development of trade in copper from Anatolia and Cyprus, tin from Afghanistan and Cornwall, silver from Anatolia, and gold from Nubia. 30. New modes of transportation introduced during this period included horses, chariots, and camels. II0. The Aegean World, 2000—1100 B . C . E . A0. Minoan Crete 10. Minoan civilization is known through legendary accounts of King Minos, the labyrinth beneath his palace, and the Minotaur. Archaeological evidence for Minoan civilization includes excavated palace sites at Cnossus, Phaistos, and Mallia, and widely distributed remains of Cretan pottery and other artifacts. The evidence suggests that Minoan civilization was influenced by the civilizations of Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia.
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20. Minoan civilization was destroyed, probably by Mycenaean Greeks, about 1450 B . C . E . B0.
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03 - The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000 - 500 B.C.E. -...

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