14 - The Latin West, 1200 - 1500

14 - The Latin West, 1200 - 1500 - CHAPTER 15 The Latin...

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CHAPTER 15 The Latin West, 1200–1500 I0. Rural Growth and Crisis A0. Peasants and Population 10. In 1200 C . E . most Europeans were peasants, bound to the land in serfdom and using inefficient agricultural practices. Fifteen to thirty such heavily taxed farming families supported each noble household. 20. Women labored in the fields with men but were subordinate to them. 30. Europe’s population more than doubled between 1000 and 1445. Population growth was accompanied by new agricultural technologies in northern Europe, including the vthree-field system and the cultivation of oats. 40. As population grew, people opened new land for cultivation, including land with poor soil and poor growing conditions. This caused a decline in average crop yields beginning around 1250. B0. The Black Death and Social Change 10. The population pressure was eased by the Black Death (bubonic plague), which was brought from Kaffa to Italy and southern France in 1346. The plague ravaged Europe for two years and returned periodically in the late 1300s and 1400s, causing substantial decreases in population. 20. As a result of the plague, labor became more expensive in Western Europe. This gave rise to a series of peasant and worker uprisings, higher wages, and the end of serfdom. Serfdom in Eastern Europe grew extensively in the centuries after the Black Death. 30. Rural living standards improved, the period of apprenticeship for artisans was reduced, and per capita income rose. C0. Mines and Mills 10. Between 1200 and 1500 Europeans invented and used a variety of mechanical devices including water wheels and windmills. Mills were expensive to build, but over time they brought great profits to their owners. 20. Industrial enterprises, including mining, ironworking, stone quarrying, and tanning, grew during these centuries. The results included both greater productivity and environmental damage including water pollution and deforestation. II0. Urban Revival A0. Trading Cities 10. Increases in trade and in manufacturing contributed to the growth of cities after 1200. The relationship between trade, manufacturing, and urbanization is demonstrated in the growth of the cities of northern Italy and in the urban areas of Champagne and Flanders. 20. The Venetian capture of Constantinople (1204), the opening of the Central Asian caravan trade under the Mongol Empire, and the post-Mongol development of the Mediterranean galley trade with Constantinople, Beirut, and Alexandria brought profits and growth to Venice. The increase in sea trade also brought profits to Genoa in the Mediterranean and to the cities of the Hanseatic League in the Baltic and the North Sea.
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30. Flanders prospered from its woolen textile industries, while the towns of
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14 - The Latin West, 1200 - 1500 - CHAPTER 15 The Latin...

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