15 - The Maritime Revolution, to 1500

15 - The Maritime Revolution, to 1500 - CHAPTER 16 The...

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CHAPTER 16 The Maritime Revolution, to 1550 I0. Global Maritime Expansion Before 1450 A0. The Pacific Ocean 10. Over a period of several thousand years, peoples originally from the Malay Peninsula crossed the water to settle the islands of the East Indies, New Guinea, the Melanesian and Polynesian islands, the Marquesas, New Zealand, and other Pacific islands out to Hawaii. 20. Polynesian expansion was the result of planned voyages undertaken with the intention of establishing colonies. Polynesian mariners navigated by the stars and by their observations of ocean currents and evidence of land. B0. The Indian Ocean 10. Malayo-Indonesians colonized the island of Madagascar in a series of voyages that continued through the fifteenth century. 20. Arab seafarers used the regular pattern of the monsoon winds to establish trade routes in the Indian Ocean. These trade routes flourished when the rise of Islam created new markets and new networks of Muslim traders. 30. The Chinese Ming dynasty sponsored a series of voyages to the Indian Ocean between 1405 and 1433. The Ming voyages were carried out on a grand scale, involving fleets of over sixty large “treasure ships” and hundreds of smaller support vessels. 40. The treasure ships carried out trade in luxury goods including silk and precious metals as well as stimulating diplomatic relations with various African and Asian states. The voyages, which were not profitable and inspired opposition in court, were ended in 1433. C0. The Atlantic Ocean 10. During the relatively warm centuries of the early Middle Ages, the Vikings, navigating by the stars and the seas, explored and settled Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland (Vinland). When a colder climate returned after 1200, the northern settlements in Greenland and the settlement in Newfoundland were abandoned. 20. A few southern Europeans and Africans attempted to explore the Atlantic in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Voyagers from Genoa in 1291 and from Mali in the 1300s set out into the Atlantic but did not return. Genoese and Portuguese explorers discovered and settled the Madeiras, the Azores, and the Canaries in the fourteenth century. 30. In the Americas the Arawak from South America had colonized the Lesser and Greater Antilles by the year 1000. The Carib followed, first taking over Arawak settlements in the Lesser Antilles and then, in the late fifteenth century, raiding the Greater Antilles. II0. European Expansion, 1400–1550 A0. Motives for Exploration 10. The Iberian kingdoms sponsored voyages of exploration for a number of reasons, including both the adventurous personalities of their leaders and long-term trends in European historical development: the revival of trade, the struggle with Islam
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15 - The Maritime Revolution, to 1500 - CHAPTER 16 The...

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