CHAPTER 21Northern Eurasia, 1500–1800I0.Japanese ReunificationA0.Civil War and the Invasion of Korea and Manchuria, 1500–1603 10.In the twelfth century, with imperial unity dissolved, Japan came under the control of a number of regional warlords called daimyo.20.Warfare among the daimyo was common, and in 1592 the most powerful of these warlords, Hideyoshi, chose to lead an invasion of Korea.30.Although the Korean and Japanese languages are closely related, the dominant influence on Yi dynasty Korea was China.40.Despite the creative use of technological and military skill, the Koreans and their Chinese allies were defeated by the Japanese.50.After Hideyoshi's death in 1598, the Japanese withdrew their forces and, in 1606, made peace with Korea.60.The Japanese withdrawal left Korea in disarray and the Manchu in a greatly strengthened position.B0.The Tokugawa Shogunate, 1603–1800 10.In the late 1500s Japan’s Ashikaga Shogunate had lost control and the country had fallen into a period of chaotic wars between local lords; a new shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, brought all the local lords under the administration of his Tokugawa Shogunate in 1600.20.The Tokugawa Shogunate gave loyal regional lords rice lands close to the shogunal capital in central Japan, while those lords who had not been supporters of the Tokugawa were given undeveloped lands at the northern and southern extremes of the islands. The Japanese emperor remained in Kyoto but had no political power. This political structure had an important influence on the subsequent development of the Japanese economy.30.The decentralized system of regional lords meant that Japan developed well-spaced urban centers in all regions, while the shogun’s requirement that the regional lords visit Edo frequently stimulated the development of the transportation infrastructure and the development of commerce, particularly the development of wholesale rice exchanges.40.The samurai became bureaucrats and consumers of luxury goods, spurring the development of an increasingly independent merchant class whose most successful families cultivated alliances with regional lords and with the shogun himself. By the end of the 1700s the wealthy industrial families were politically influential and held the key to modernization and the development of heavy industry.C0.Japan and the Europeans10.Jesuits came to Japan in the late 1500s, and while they had limited success in converting the regional lords, they did make a significant number of converts among the farmers of southern and eastern Japan. A rural rebellion in this area in the 1630s was blamed on Christians; the Tokugawa Shogunate responded with persecutions, a ban on Christianity, and, in 1649, the closing of the country.