22 - The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760 - 1851

22 - The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760 - 1851 - CHAPTER...

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CHAPTER 23 The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760–1851 I0. Causes of the Industrial Revolution A0. Population Growth 10. In the eighteenth century more reliable food supplies, earlier marriage, high birthrates, and more widespread resistance to disease contributed to significant population growth in Europe. England and Wales experienced particularly rapid population growth. 20. Rapid population growth meant that children accounted for a relatively high proportion of the total population. Population growth also contributed to migration of people from the countryside to the cities, from Ireland to England, and from Europe to the Americas. B0. The Agricultural Revolution 10. The agricultural revolution began long before the eighteenth century. New food crops, many of them from the Americas, and new forage crops produced more food per acre and allowed farmers to raise more cattle for meat and milk. 20. Only wealthy landowners could afford to invest in new crops and new farming methods. Rich landowners fenced off (enclosed) their own land and common land to apply new scientific farming methods; as they did so, they forced their former tenants to become sharecroppers or landless laborers, or to migrate to the cities. C0. Trade and Inventiveness 10. In most of Europe, increasing demand for goods was met with increasing production in traditional ways through the addition of new craftsmen to existing workshops and through the putting-out system. 20. Population growth and increased agricultural productivity were accompanied by a growth in trade and a fascination with technology and innovation. D0. Britain and Continental Europe 10. Eighteenth-century Britain had a number of characteristics that help to explain its peculiar role in the Industrial Revolution. These characteristics include economic growth, population growth, people who were willing to put new ideas into practice, strong mining and metal industries, the world’s largest merchant marine, and a relatively fluid social structure. 20. Britain also had a good water transportation system, a unified market, and a highly developed commercial sector. 30. The economies of continental Europe experienced a similar dynamic expansion in the eighteenth century, but lack of markets and management skills and the constant warfare from 1789–1815 interrupted trade and weakened the incentive to invest in new technologies. Industrialization took hold in Europe after 1815, first in Belgium and France. European governments played a significant role in fostering industrialization. II0. The Technological Revolution A0. Mass Production: Pottery 10. Pottery was either imported or handmade for the aristocracy; in either event, ordinary people could not afford it. But the growing taste for tea, cocoa, and
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coffee created a demand for porcelain that would not spoil the flavor of these beverages.
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22 - The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760 - 1851 - CHAPTER...

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