24 - Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800 - 1870 -...

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CHAPTER 25Africa, India, and the New British Empire, 1750–1870I0.Changes and Exchanges in AfricaA0.New Africa States10.Serious drought hit the coastlands of southeastern Africa in the early nineteenth century and led to conflicts over grazing and farming lands. During these conflicts Shaka used strict military drill and close-combat warfare in order to build the Zulu kingdom.20.Some neighboring Africans created their own states (such as Swaziland and Lesotho) in order to protect themselves against the expansionist Zulu kingdom. Shaka ruled the Zulu kingdom for little more than a decade, but he succeeded in creating a new national identity as well as a new kingdom.30.In West Africa movements to purify Islam led to the construction of new states through the classic Muslim pattern of jihad. The largest of these reform movements occurred in the Hausa states and led to the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate (1809–1906).40.The new Muslim states became centers of Islamic learning and reform. Sokoto and other Muslim states both sold slaves and used slaves in order to raise food, thus making it possible for them to seclude free Muslim women in their homes in accordance with reformed Muslim practice.B0.Modernization in Egypt and Ethiopia10.In Egypt, Muhammad Ali (r. 1805–1848) carried out a series of modernizing reforms that were intended to build up Egypt’s military strength. In order to pay for his reform program, Muhammad Ali required Egyptian peasants to cultivate cotton and other crops for export.20.Muhammad Ali’s grandson Ismail placed even more emphasis on westernizing Egypt. Ismail’s ambitious construction programs (railroads, the new capital city of Cairo) were funded by borrowing from French and British banks, which led Britain and France to occupy the country when the market for cotton collapsed after the American Civil War.30.In the mid- to late nineteenth century Ethiopian kings reconquered territory that had been lost since the sixteenth century, purchased modern European weapons, and began to manufacture weapons locally. An attempt to hold British officials captive led to a temporary British occupation in the 1860s, but the British withdrew and the modernization program continued.C0.European Pentration10.In 1830 France invaded Algeria; it took the French eighteen years to defeat Algerian resistance organized by the Muslim holy man Abd al-Qadir and another thirty years to put down resistance forces in the mountains. By 1871 130,000 European settlers had taken possession of rich Algerian farmland.20.European explorers carried out peaceful expeditions in order to trace the course of Africa’s rivers, assess the mineral wealth of the continent, and to convert Africans to Christianity. David Livingstone, Henry Morton Stanley, and other
explorers traced the courses of the Nile, the Niger, the Zambezi, and the Congo rivers.

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