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CHAPTER 27The New Power Balance, 1850–190000CHAPTER OUTLINEI0.New Technologies and the World EconomyA.Railroads10.By 1850 the first railroads had proved so successful that every industrializing country began to build railroad lines. Railroad building in Britain, France, Germany, Canada, Russia, Japan, and especially in the United States fueled a tremendous expansion in the world’s rail networks from 1850 to 1900.20.In the non-industrialized world, railroads were also built wherever they would be of value to business or to government. 30.Railroads consumed huge amounts of land and timber for ties and bridges. Throughout the world, railroads opened new land to agriculture, mining, and other human exploitation of natural resources.B0.Steamships and Telegraph Cables10.In the mid-nineteenth century a number of technological developments in shipbuilding made it possible to increase the average size and speed of ocean-going vessels. These developments included the use of iron (and then steel) for hulls, propellers, and more efficient engines.20.Entrepreneurs developed a form of organization known as the shipping line in order to make the most efficient use of these large and expensive new ships. Shipping lines also used the growing system of submarine telegraph cables in order to coordinate the movements of their ships around the globe.C0.The Steel and Chemical Industries10.Steel is an especially hard and elastic form of iron that could be made only in small quantities by skilled blacksmiths before the eighteenth century. A series of inventions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries made it possible to produce large quantities of steel at low cost.20.Until the late eighteenth century chemicals were also produced in small amounts in small workshops. The nineteenth century brought large-scale manufacture of chemicals and the invention of synthetic dyes and other new organic chemicals.30.Nineteenth century advances in explosives (including Alfred Nobel’s invention of dynamite) had significant effects on both civil engineering and on the development of more powerful and more accurate firearms.40.The complexity of industrial chemistry made it one of the first fields in which science and technology interacted on a daily basis. This development gave a great advantage to Germany, where government-funded research and cooperation between universities and industries made the German chemical and explosives industries the most advanced in the world by the end of the nineteenth century.D0.Electricity10.In the 1870s inventors devised efficient generators that turned mechanical energy into electricity that could be used to power arc lamps, incandescent lamps, streetcars, subways, and electric motors for industry.
20.Electricity helped to alleviate the urban pollution caused by horse-drawn vehicles.