CHAPTER 28The New Imperialism, 1869–191400CHAPTER OUTLINEI0.The New Imperialism: Motives and MethodsA0.Introduction10.The New Imperialism was a tremendous explosion of territorial conquest in which the imperial powers used economic and technological means to reorganize dependent regions and bring them into the world economy as suppliers of foodstuffs and raw materials and as consumers of industrial products.20.In Africa and in other parts of the world this was done by conquest and colonial administration; in Latin America, the same result was attained by indirect means.B0.Political Motives10.One political motive for imperialism was the desire to gain national prestige.20.The actions of colonial governors also led to the acquisition of new colonial possessions. Colonial agents often sent troops to take over neighboring territories first and informed their home governments afterwards.C0.Cultural Motives10.The late nineteenth century Christian revival in Europe and North America included a commitment to exporting Western “civilization” through Christian missionary activity.20.Persons other than missionaries also believed that Europeans and Americans were morally and culturally superior and that their technological prowess was proof of this superiority. Some used racist ideas in order to justify this superiority and to relegate non-Europeans to a permanent state of inferiority.30.Imperialism was attractive to young men who found opportunities for adventure and glory in the imperialist enterprise. By the 1890s, imperialism was a popular cause; it was the overseas extension of nationalism.D0.Economic Motives10.The industrialization of Europe and North America stimulated a demand for minerals, industrial crops, and stimulants (sugar, coffee, tea, and tobacco). The economic depression of the mid-1870s to the mid-1890s gave the industrialized countries an incentive to seek control of the sources of raw materials and the markets for their industrial products.20.Entrepreneurs and investors looked to profit from mines, plantations, and railroads in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In order to minimize their risks, these entrepreneurs sought the diplomatic and military support of their governments.E0.The Tools of the Imperialists10.The Industrial Revolution provided technological innovations that made it possible for Europeans and Americans to build the “New Imperialism.”20.Steamships, the Suez Canal, and submarine cables gave European forces greater mobility and better communications than Africans, Asians, or Latin Americans. The discovery that quinine could be used to prevent malaria allowed Europeans to enter Africa in large numbers for the first time.30.The invention of the breechloader, smokeless powder, and the machine gun widened the firearms gap and made colonial conquests easier than ever before.