Lecture2 - Phonetics LIN 228H1F Lecture 2 LECTURE 2 English...

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Phonetics LIN 228H1F Lecture 2 May 12, 2010 Page 1 of 13 LECTURE 2 English Consonants Outline: 1. Transcription of English Consonants 2. Line Drawings 3. Allophonic Processes with English Consonants Transcription phonetics uses special symbols for sounds - transcribes sounds the most commonly used transcription system is the IPA system – International Phonetic Association e.g. pin [p] ship [ ʃ ] charge [t ʃ ] put [p h ] Important Notes : 1. In this course, we are using Canadian English. Ignore RP (BBC) pronunciation in the textbook. 2. You may get the idea to use a dictionary when writing an assignment. Note that none of the dictionaries uses the same transcription we do. Transcriptions taken directly from a dictionary will not be accepted. 3. If the book covers more material than the lecture, this is noted in the handout. If the book and the lecture differ in opinion, stick to the lecture. English Consonants - Chart (with some allophones) consonants are sounds produced with some constriction in the vocal tract vowels are sounds produced without a major constriction in the vocal tract Place Manner bilabial labiodental dental alveolar retroflex post- alveolar palatal velar glottal vls p [t ̪ ] t k stops vce b [d ̪ ] d g tap vcd [ ɾ ] vls f θ s ʃ (h) fricatives vcd v ð z ʒ [ ɦ ] vls t ʃ affricates vcd d ʒ nasals vcd m [ ɱ ] [n ̪ ] n ŋ liquids vcd l [ ɫ ] ɹ glides vcd w j w
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Phonetics LIN 228H1F Lecture 2 May 12, 2010 Page 2 of 13 consonants in square brackets are allophones some linguists do not consider (h) to be a consonant, but a voiceless vowel; we will treat it as a consonant [ ɾ ] bu tt er / ɹ / co r n / ʃ / sh ip / ʒ / clo s ure /t ʃ / ch eap /d ʒ / j eep / θ / th ick / ð / th ey / ŋ / ki ng /n g / combination is sometimes transcribed as / ŋ / an sometimes as / ŋ g/; whatever you use is OK in English, the orthography does not correspond to the pronunciation e.g. s ure / ʃ / plea s ure / ʒ / s in /s/ Additional Terms 1. obstruents: consonants which involve a high degree of constriction - stops, fricatives and affricates 2. sonorants: opposite from the above – approximants and nasals 3. sibilants: consonants that produce a hissing sounds /s z ʃ ʒ t ʃ d ʒ / 4. liquids: laterals and rhotics 5. continuants: sounds made with a continuous air flow through the oral cavity - fricatives, approximants, vowels brackets: / /
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This note was uploaded on 07/18/2010 for the course LIN lin228 taught by Professor Milisa during the Summer '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Lecture2 - Phonetics LIN 228H1F Lecture 2 LECTURE 2 English...

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