Psychology Book Study Guide

Psychology Book Study Guide - Psychology Book Study Guide...

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Psychology Book Study Guide: Test 3 Delay of Gratification -choose the action that produces the biggest payoff later rather than the smaller pleasure now. -the period of dreading the bad news only makes it worse. Social and Cultural Influences on Eating -In the United States, Obesity is a growing problem -abundant high calorie foods and sit-at-a-desk jobs -Social factors cause an influence in eating: lingering over your food as you eat with friends -people watching you eat can cause you not to eat as much -“Coca-Colonized by Americans and Western Culture (The Pima of Arizona-ancestors weren’t obese b/c they ate fruits and vegetable, but once they switched over to Western style eating, many are obese. Caused by a combination of genes and eating habits) Two approaches to job design Scientific Management Approach (Theory X) - most employees are lazy indifferent and uncreative. Therefore employers should make work foolproof and supervise the workers to make sure they are doing each task the right way to save time and money. Human Relations Approach (Theory Y) – employees like variety in their job, a sense of accomplishment, and a sense of responsibility. Usefulness of Emotions Broaden-and-build hypothesis: a happy mood increases your readiness to explore new ideas and opportunities. Notice details in the background you normally overlook. Sad people tend to be more cautious and examine the evidence more carefully before making a decision Emotions and Moral Reasoning Emotions impair our decision, but sometimes they help The Trolley Dilemma The Footbridge Dilemma Decisions by people with impaired Emotions -Phineas Gage- suffered from inappropriate emotions A iron bar shot through his head damaging his prefrontal cortex. Causing him to show little emotion. The emotion he did show was inappropriate. Lost his values. Sexual advances. Etc. etc. Fear and Anxiety Fear- response to an immediate danger Anxiety- vague, long lasting sense that something bad might happen
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Measuring Anxiety Anxiety- increase in the startle reflex -the quick, automatic response that almost any animal makes after a sudden loud noise Amygdala- the key brain area People with amygdala damage still feel fear but they don’t respond quickly to subtle signals. Anxiety, Arousal, and Lie Detection Polygraph- simultaneously records several indications of sympathetic nervous system arousal, such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and electrical conduction of the skin. The assumption is when people lie, they feel nervous and increase their sympathetic nervous system arousal. Polygraphs-not reliable
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Psychology Book Study Guide - Psychology Book Study Guide...

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