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Masini electrice II - No iuni generale 3.1.3 Înfáçurári...

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Unformatted text preview: No iuni generale 3.1.3. Înfáçurári de curent alternativ y " $ # ! ! % % & ' ' ' Nc ' $ N c = 2mpq # înf urarea *+ întreag % , ! = / 2 m ( zona de dus) zon de întors. & ! # 2p Nc ! ! # # ( N c , p) Nc = mt . / 01 # " *2 ) ) " ! *3 # Nc = m Nc = 2m # # 4 5 0 3.1.3.2. Înfáçurári trifazate íntr-un singur strat $ % " N c = 24 p = 2 m = 3 ) t=2 $! 5$ *$ $ ! 7 # 6/ A/ B / C / ! 2 3 Nc =4 2m # 5 ) # * 5* ) *2 = / *3 22 = = 24 6 4 # # ! 5*6 ! % +2 3 8 / 6 % 9 : 5 55 / % ; # ! Fig. 3.23. Steaua t.e.m. pentru înf surarea analizat . ! – ! = ) % < # # * – # # > # * 56 ? = " # > # * 5+ ( # * 5* = 3.1.3.3. Înfáçurári trifazate ín douá straturi , , y=y = @ / # / Nc m # ! # # # 4 ? # * 58 N c = 18 p = 2 m = 3 q = 3 / 2 6 0 > # * 58 $ 3.1.3.4. Înfáçurári ín colivie ; ! Nc # * 59 " > m = Nc N = 1/ 2 ! < # Fig.3.29. Înf urare în colivie. 3.2.2. T.e.m. indusá íntr-o ínfáçurare de curent alternativ $ 0 A B # # * *5 / !0 0v 10 0 A0 B # 0! 0 1 1 "10 0 A B 1 A 0 0 $ 1! 10 1 #0 1 0 + # ! A0 T.e.m. indusá de armonica fundamentalá de spaþiu B1 C ! 0 1 A # $ 01 0 " U ec1 f 1 = pn 2p = Nc ! U ec1 = 1 2 * 52 !0 0# B1li v # li , * 53 B v = Dn = 2 p n U ec1 = >% 1 1 2 B1l i 2 p n * 58 0 = B1 ( x)l i dx = l i B1 sin 0 0 xdx = 2 B1 l i * 59 * *: U ec1 = # (0 1 > 0 B # x 2 f1 1 1 # * *5 0! 0# A =0 0 1 01 0 # 0 # x % B 0 1 B 1 1 1 1 A B A0 # ) x, # 0# A 1 0 47 ( = 1 0 # * ** 1 # # 0 U eci1 % =c 2 0 > # * *5 / # 01 &B A 0 1 A 0 > # * ** C 1 # 01 A0 " @ U ec1 = R U eci1 = 2 R sin 2 ** * *5 * ** 0 A 0 1 1 0 C 1 # y y U eci1 = U ec1 K i1 c c K i1 = sin 2 2 0 B 01 D " 0 U es1 # 5 *: # * *6 U es1 = 2U eci1 sin y = 2U eci1 K s1 2y y K s1 = sin 2y y = y K s1 = 1). * *6 / 10 0 T.e.m. indusá íntr-o bobiná cu sb spire 3 U eb1 = s bU es1 * *+ > # * *6 C 01 " 0 > # * *+ C 01 0 C ' 1 1 0 0 0 # * *2 1 1 " U eq1 = q k =1 (U ebk )1 ( 2p )/ Nc (U eb1 )1 = (U eb 2 )1 = ... = (U ebk )1 = ... = (U ebq )1 = # A A 0 q 2 [email protected] U eb1 = 2 R sin 2 ; U eq1 = 2 R sin * *3 2 U eq1 = qU eb1 K r1 K r1 = sin q / 0 # K r1 , 10 2 0B" 1 #0 1 q sin U eq1 0 * 6: U e1 = 2 pU eq1 U e1 = 4 pqsb K i1 K s1 K r1 K B1 &0 = K i1 K s1 K r1 f1 2 0 N = 2 pqsb 10 1 *6 0 8 0 U e1 = 2 f 1 NK B1 1 @A ! 0 10 0 1" U e1 = pU eq1 N = pqsb 2. T.e.m. indusá de armonica de ordinul B 1 ) p=p = = 2p = Nc * 65 * 62 > !A 0 f = p n = pn = f1 * 63 * 68 A * +5 0c 0 ! A 0 0 yB Ue = 3. T.e.m. indusá pe o fazá 2 f NK B 0 =1 Ue = ! A1 $ 0 U e2 1 0y 1 !c B ! y Cãmpul magnetic pulsatoriu (0 0 B 1 ( x, t ) = B 1 sin x sin t 0 * 29 # 1 > # * *9 /B # !0 0 # @A 0 # ! 1 B A ! 0 0! # * *9 0 t B < B 1 ( x, t ) = 1 B 1 sin 2 x+ 1 B 1 sin 2 t+ x * 3: 9 $" # A A ! 0B ! nd = f p f p # # 1 vd = 2 f 1 !B ! )B *3 ! ! < ni = vi = 2 f * 35 3.3.2. Cãmpul magnetic ínvãrtitor circular 1 1. Cãmpul magnetic ínvãrtitor circular produs pe cale electricá $ 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 10 0 0 A< i A = 2 I sin t i B = 2 I sin iC = 2 I sin t t 2 3 4 3 * 3* / 0 1 A% 1 !B B A ( x, t ) = B B ( x, t ) = B C ( x, t ) = B 10 # * 6: < 1 B sin 2 1 B sin 2 1 B sin 2 t t t x+ x+ x+ 1 B sin 2 1 B sin 2 1 B sin 2 t+ t+ t+ x x x 4 3 8 3 0 11 B # 0B B ! 0 > # * 6: B # 1 !B * 36 : 0 $" 0 /B # A 1 t 1 % ! x 4 < .: 0 ( < A 3 B ( x, t ) = B sin 2 0 0 0! * 3+ 1 B A * 32 x) 0 B ( x , t ) = B ( x + x, t + t ) 0< t x= (t + t ) A < (x + * 33 (0 v= ( (0 " 0 ( 0 ( x f =2f n= t p !E: B # 01 ! % ;% # * 6 0 0 1 0< 3 B ( x, t ) = B sin t + x 2 0 0!0 1 A< x f vi = = 2f ni = t p vi < 0 B # 01 #! % ;% # * 6 * 38 0 A * 39 ! * 8: ! 10 ( 2. Cãmpul magnetic ínvãrtitor circular produs pe cale mecanicá $ 0 0 0 A # * 65 %A 0 0 01 B # A # 1 0 0 A 0 " A0 % A0 # * 65 % A % A0 # B ( x) = B sin eR = B sin p eR [email protected] B !< gR # - "# A0 4 @ ) "# 0 A0 gSR % % # 4$ # ) gS gR $ A0 % 0 # 4$ % # B gS = (0 " 1 < # 0 " A0 > # * 65 B # 1 !B gSR + 0 gR * 85 % ! 0 0 A 4$ A< * 8* A < * 86 % A *8 / A.R. A 0# 0 B # * 85 ! A B # B ( x) = B sin p ( gS gSR ) B 0 .: 1 A.S . gSR = t p gS = eS = x 1 A < gS B ( x, t ) = B sin( p p t ) = B sin x t * 8+ 0 1B $" 0 F A ! B 0 B # 0 # 0 A 1 !B 1 1 0 1. MAÇINA SINCRONÁ 1.PÁRÞI COMPONENTE ÇI MATERIALE UTILIZATE 0 0 ! 0 n1 = 60 f 1 / p , 0 A #0 A 5 0 0 % 0 10 A 0B # 01 0 0 !0 # ! 0 A A A ! ! 0 0 0 0 A 01 0 (0 1 A # " # " 1 0 0 5 1 A A 0 A- ># " $A 0 ! 0 0 A 0 ># 5 $ A " 0 ! 0 0 1 A 0 A # 0 C A A (. "5 G A A! – # A 0 # A 0 # hidrogenerator # # 0 # 1 A turbogenerator 0 0 0 ! " # 0 0 1 A 0 A 0 1 < # A ) . 2"3 # 0 %! 0 ! 1 * < (. 6" 2 – # Statorul 0 ! 0A ! Rotorul B 1 ! 1 A ) . "5 %0 " # 0 0 !< 0! A 1.1.1. Párþile componente ale statorului Carcasa # A 0 A1 A 0 0 Miezul feromagnetic al statorului B # ! 1 0 0 0 0 % # :+ (0 # 0 H5:"5+ 0 # ! A % 0 0 # 0 ! ! ! # ! ! A 0 0, # 0 0 C !0 0 0 Înfáçurarea statorului e 10 01 " 1 ! % 0 0 01 0 > 10 0 0 A A 0 , ! F.*" + IJ , 1 0 0 0B " 1.1.2. Párþile componente ale rotorului A. Rotorul cu poli aparenþi $ 0 +:: K B A ! 6 0 , 10 @ 0 % A A 1# 10 %A Miezul feromagnetic al polilor % 0 A # "5 + # 1 ! =# 1 0 ># 5" 0 0) *" =0 +" # =# B 0 A A 0 # 0 0 0 B# ) 6" 0< " 0 . 0 0 ) ) 1 0 01 C /B 1 0 B % 0 0 0 0 % 0 0 0 = Infáçurarea de amortizare (de pornire în asincron) 1 0 1 0 7 A 0 # 0 " 10 # " 10 Infáçurarea de excitaþie % 0 0 0 B. Rotorul cu poli înecaþi $ 01 A ! ! # Miezul feromagnetic al rotorului ::: IJ4 % 0 0 0 %0 B0 A + 1 C A K* # ! % 0 0 AB A 0 % A1 0 # 0 5K* A # = * A0 0 # 0 % 1 / % 0 0 6 5 ! " A B Infáçurarea de excitaþie % 0 0 = Infáçurarea de amortizare 1 0 0 ! 5K* 0 10 ! 0 1 1.2. PROCESUL DE REACÞIE AL INDUSULUI , 10 B < " " "1 0 " A " A A 1#1 %A A A ! A 0 10 0 10 0 # 0 # 0 ) 0) 0 ) ) ) 0%0B /B $ 0 B A # 01 A 0 1.2.1. Reacþia indusului la maçina cu poli plini Cãmpul magnetic inductor , 0 010 %A 0 0 5K* A 01 % A 2 0 A !B # 0< 0 1! ( A A 1 A B E ( x) = 0 A E µo 2p E // ( x) ( x) B # ) < A ( x) " " 0 // ( x) "1 0 1 < 0 A % ! A 0 ) ! A # A A 0 / ks // kC A # % / $ 0 A IE ( x) = k s k C ( x ) 5 # + 0 000 0 01 10 B # 1 0 BE 0 B E1 ( 00 % 1 #= 0$ 0 0 B 0 0 ># +$A B # # # a # 0 % '% ! 0 Reac"ia transversalá a indusului ! 10 !0 = (U eE , I ) = 0 I = I q ( I d = 0) L # 2 L 0 0 L0 0 ! L 0 E /2 1' 1 % d1 , d 2 3 # 1 ! 2 1 , M 0 ! L # # L0 =0 L # M /@ # L ( 0 ! ># – A A N L % B ! ( A % # 2 [email protected] 0 L ! 0 A 0) " # 0 ! < B L ! L 1 0 < + A L 0 # A 0 # 3 3 < 0 01 % ' 01 0 # Baq ( x) = = ct., L 0 µo 2p aq // ( x) ( x) B ! 1 2 1 # ; 0 # a) A !0 A 0 A # A 0 ! # # # 3 A Maçiná nesaturatá # 01 1 0 ! BE 8 0 , 0 A ! # A A # 2 0 0 A 1 0 ! 0 Bmin 0 M max ># 3 " >% S abcd ( # G7 # 0 0 A b) A 0 ! 0) " A A 1 # 0 # A 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1# S ABcd A 0 0< A 0 # G4 0 % # # 0 # 0 =E 1# Maçiná saturatá # 0 $ 0 0 A A A A 0 1# 0 ! # 3 # $ !0 # # S abcd ! S ABcd 0 % A 1 0 B <E Efectele reacþiei transversale sunt urmátoarele: # # " % 1 ! 0 # 0) ) A0 % 0 9 " 0 1# % 0 A 0 # A = 1 0 A0 Reacþia longitudinalá a indusului ín cazul 0 8 L , # # 0 I = I d ( I q = 0) $ # M 1 8 L ! 1 ' /2 0 1 % 1 !0 0 ! /@ B # 0 – ># A A [email protected] # % # L 0 # A 0 0) " B B # = /2 / ! $ L = 0 L %0 A # 0 "= /2 0M I, I E ) L 0M L / 0 # 8 M L # N #0 ! !L L 0 Reacþia longitudinalá a indusului ín cazul = /2 0 !0 9 0 1 I = I d ( I q = 0) $ 0 0 A L ! 0 # 0 0! 5: 0 , # B M # 1 L 1 ># 9 @ – A A # @ 9 L !0 0 L # 0 0 A 0) # " = /2 B # # 1 # L 0 r 1.3. ECUAÞIILE DE TENSIUNI §I DIAGRAMELE FAZORIALE 1.3.1. Generatorul sincron cu poli ínecaþi A 0 10 0 $ 0 " O 1 # 0 % 10 0 / B 0 # # 0 A< Ri + u = $u e " < > # 5* 0 @ " A10 0 0) " ) 5 $u e # " " ) 110 0 d dt 0 10 % 0 = E+ a+ % ) A ) $u e = # A 5 < * " $ E a % 1! 0 % " " " % % % % 4 E a 0 = Nk B = La i 0 E A< 6 % &" kB " E" La " L% " -1 0 =) % ! ! = L% i 0 10 ) 0 0 B B A 0 ) A) A < + u eE " u ea " u e% " 0 00 ! 4 /3 0< % 1 88 $u e = u eE + u ea + u e% 0 B ) 0 B ) 0 B 0 A 1! 0 2 1 0 2 /3 u = u eE + u ea + u e% A ! 1 Ri 55 0 # A ! A U = U eE ! U eE = j 0 + U ea + U e% 0< RI ! E 1 % 3 A < 8 2 fNK B U ea = U e% = Xa " X% " 4!B 0 # A A 0 0 A ! jX a I jX % I 0 0 31 0 !0 B B # ! 56 " !0 A) # 1 # 5+ > # 56 ( # 0 ! 0 !0 > # 5+ ( # 0 ! 0 !0 Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá transformatá $ 1! A< U ea + U e% = j ( X a + X % ) I X s = X a + X% Xs " A 0 / U es = jX s I 9 5: 5 5* A (# 0 < U = U eE + U es R I 01 # 52 0 ! 55 !0 Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá simplificatá #= (# 00 0 U = U eE + U es 0 A0 5* 01 # 53 > # 52 ( # 0 0 > # 53 ( # 0 0 1.3.2. Generatorul sincron cu poli aparenþi 00 # 01 0 # " O 1 Ri + u = $u e d $u e = dt "% 0 10 = E + ad + aq + % E ad aq 1 # 5* $ A 0 56 5+ 52 "% "% "% " % ! ) A A 0 B 0% 0% # ! A # 0) 0) ) % Lad " 56 0 Laq " ! # ! % 0 0 B B 0 0 0 1 B ) A A 5+ # ! A ! ) id " iq " -1 u ead " u eaq " A ) < 58 $u e = u eE + u ead + u eaq + u e% 0 A 1! u = u eE + u ead + u eaq + u e% Ri # A U = U eE + U ead ! ! 0 1 59 % *: A < A 0 + U eaq + U e% j 2 fNK B 0< RI ! E U eE = U ead = U eaq = U e% = X ad " A A 0 0 B jX ad I d jX aq I q jX % I B A A ! # * ) X aq " > # 58 ( # 0 ! 0 !0 > # 59 ( # 0 ! 0 !0 5+ # A *: 1 # 58 " 0 ! !0 1 0 ! !0 Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá transformatá / B 0 0 0 < U ead + U eaq + U e% = jX ad I d jX aq I q jX % ( I d + I q ) 0 X d = X ad + X % X q = X aq + X % Xd " Xq " / 4!B 0 0 A # # 59 0% *5 ** A A 0 0 U ed = U eq = # ! 0 jX d I d jX q I q 0 0 ) *6 *+ 0 01 U = U eE + U ed + U eq A # *: RI 0 ! # !0 Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá simplificatá (# #= 00 U = U eE + U ed + U eq 0 0 A0 *2 01 # * > # *: ( # 0 0 ># * ( # 0 0 52 0 1.4. CUPLAREA ÍN PARALEL A GENERATOARELOR SINCRONE & " ) " A " N # *5 5 * 6 ! 1 # ** J $ # A 1 0 !0 1 0 ! 0 A ! 0 1 # !A 0 # O 0 # A0 A 0 B # # A 1 0# A< A 0 # L 1 B ! 10 ! ) # 0 1 # B < 0 #0 0 Verificarea condiþiilor çi modul de índeplinire al acestora A # ! 0 0 ! = 0 0 0 # A (0 A 1 0 0 %A Ug <U 0 U g >U # B0 B A # 5! A ! # A ! = 0 0 = # 1 !B Montajul la stingere 0 # *5 # # A 1 # *5 (0 0 U1 , U 2 , U 3 0 1 # *5 # # (0 1 0 L 1 0N 1 O 1 L0 53 L 1 # L L M > # *5< # " = L)" L # # # 0 U 1, U 2 , U 3 0 !0 0 % L 0 ! 1 1 # = / # A ! 0 *5 ! U1, U 4 , U 5 ! # ! A ! ! L " # ! 0 7/ $ 0 0 Montajul la foc ínvãrtitor $ # 0 (0 1 0 1 ! U1, U 4 , U 5 1 A A ! 0 0 A 0 L 0$ ! L ! # ** # ** B !0 1# U1, U 2 , U 3 1 !B 0 # 0 # 58 0 > # **< # " L = L)" # 1 !B U 1, U 2 , U 3 0 A # L !A (0 !L !0 %0 0 g # 0 *J = % 0 # 0 (0 0 !0 0 64 0 O 0 !L r g # # 1 A 0 r ! L L 0 0 A A # 1 # # # ! $ 0 0 0 0 / M 0 , U ! 01 A B0 B 1 ! A# A ! 1 1 montajului la stingere 1 = 0 M A 0 1 0 !L 1 M 1 L montajului la foc ínvãrtitor 0B 0A # Consecinþe ín cazul nerespectárii condiþiile 59 0 1 # 0 # A 0 Ug <U A 0 ! ( 0 U g >U A 0 A 0 0 ! 0 A # A A 6 1 # A !0 ! 0 1 A 0 0 1 0 0B 0 A # A A ( 0 # ( # A B 0 A 0 0 A ! 54 01 A A A *( 0 ! 6& # !A 1 00 0 # 1.5. CUPLUL ELECTROMAGNETIC AL MA§INII SINCRONE 1.5.1. Bilanþul puterilor active la generatorul sincron # *6 A A 0 < P1 " 0 0 ) PM " 0) 0 1 ) 110 # 0 ! 1 0 ) A) P2 " p m +v " PFe " # PCu " > # *6 # 7 ! < A Ecuaþia de miçcare ín regim staþionar 7 A ! *: P1 = PM + p m + v 0 (0 0 A A A 1 1 M1 = M + M 0 "! # # A 0 < *9 0 6: 1.5.2. Cuplul çi puterea electromagneticá $ #= 0 110 PM ' P2 = mUI cos " ( # 0 0 A # *+ 0 "= A A 6 0 A < PM = mUI cos cos + 6* + mUI sin sin $ 1! 0 I d = I sin si I q = I cos 66 ( # 0 1 # *+ A 0 0% U U cos U sin I d = eE Iq = Xd Xq N L0 A > # *+ ( # 6* 66 6+ A 0 0 # < PM = mUU eE mU 2 1 sin + Xd Xq 2 1 sin 2 Xd 6 65 0 A 62 0A A / ! M= $ 0 # # 0 0 1 1 sin 2 Xd * ( ( ) p - mUU eE mU 2 1 sin + + 2 Xq + Xd , !0 0 < ! 63 # 0 B * -Componenta principalá % 0 0 %A p mUU eE sin M/ = Xd "Componenta auxiliará % 0 0 0 0 %< p mU 2 1 M= Xq 2 // 0 63 A 1 sin 2 Xd 63 1 Q= 00 !0 Q = mUI sin " = mUI sin( )= = mUI sin cos mUI sin cos Id , Iq mUU eE mU 2 1 cos + Xd Xq 2 1 cos 2 Xd mU 2 Xq 68 A < 69 0 0 $ 0% !0 %A 1 0! 0 % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 / Caracteristica unghiular staticá 1U = ct. . PM , M = f ( ) 0 f = ct. . I = ct. /E La maçina cu poli ínecaþi 1 0% ! # A Xd = Xq = Xs < +: A 0 + 0 0 +5 0 0 # p mUU eE M =M/ = sin Xs # 0 01 # *2 La maçina cu poli aparenþi # 0 # *2 *5 0 > # *2 / " ; # # ! !0 # 0 # 1 0 M = f( ) A) " *2 0 # A < 1 1.6. CARACTERISTICILE DE FUNCÞIONARE ALE GENERATORULUI SINCRON 1.6.1. Caracteristicile generatorului sincron autonom 1.Caracteristica de funcþionare ín gol 4 0 0 0 A0 < 1n = ct. . U 0 = f ( I E ) 0 f = ct. .I = 0 / U0 +* U 0 = U eE A U eE 0 % # 1 # U 0 = f (I E ) # 1# ( L % A 0 = f (U mm ) 0 < A 0 0 > # *3 A / 1# ** %A =#1 0 10 0 0 00 !0 A 0 0B 0 % A ! A 0 % 0B % A (0 ! 0 /B ! 0 0 0 # $ # 0 2.Caracteristica de scurtcircuit 0 = L 1 f = ct. I sc = f ( I E ) 0 /U = 0 A10 0 0 ! 1 # 1 L 0 L0 M 0 1 L L +6 B /2 M 1# , A [email protected] @L # N # ! L M @ ! M 0 N L I sc = f ( I E ) ! 0 01 , 0 M L L 0 % L 0 ) # ++ ! . 3. Caracteristicile de funcþionare ín sarciná L 1 I = ct. . U = f ( I E ) 0 f = ct. .cos " = ct. / ; L0 0 0 " =0 / 1# .: 01 0 +3 1 0 0 !0 *6 0 ! . " 0 G 0 " > # 6: / # 1 0 ># 6 / # % 4. Caracteristicile externe L 1 I E = ct. . U = f ( I ) 0 f = ct. .cos " = ct. / +8 # M L M M1 0 ! UN , IN (0 # 11 , 1# 0 0 0 % ! !0 ! 0 1M " = / 2) 1 0 F # 5. Caracteristicile de reglare 4 L *+ 1U = ct. . I = f ( I E ) 0 f = ct. .cos " = ct. / +9 % L > L M ! I E0 F ! " (0 (" = / 2) # 1# 0 N # 65 " F. ! # # U e' / 10 L 0 F 0 > # 65 / # # # # 0 L F. %L 00 1.6.2. Caracteristicile de funcþionare ale generatorului sincron cuplat la reþea 1.6.2.1. Funcþionarea generatorului sincron la cuplu constant çi curent de excitaþie variabil a) Funcþionarea ín gol > 0 0 L L 0 0 L U eE = U .: =0 # # 6* $" I Eo " %A A 1# # 0 U eE = U (0 I E > I Eo U eE 1 %L > # 6* "! L 1 0 0 ! # =0 A 0 Rs *2 0 I= 1 # 6* # ! A (0 I 4 1J N % !1 L A A 0 L0 L !0 0! ! 0 L0 U eE U U = jX s jX s # 0 % L 0 L # 1 0 # 1# A !0 1 L = #1 # 2: % L I E < I Eo U eE # # 6* 01 # % 6+ L 00 00 !0 A 1# 0 P2 = 0 0 01 0 cos " = 0,8 J c) Caracteristicile ín V < 1U = ct. . I = f ( I E ) 0 f = ct. . P = ct. / 1 2 N 1 L / 0 #0" 0 0 I = f (I E ) J / !M ! ! 0 L 01 1J 0 100 L0 QH: > # 6+ ! # -. % QE: / 1 J ! # % *3 1.6.2.2. Funcþionarea generatorului sincron la cuplu variabil çi curent de excitaþie constant (0 L 0 # # 28 0 L U eE , U 0 U eE 1 0 I !0 0 0 0 0 !0 ( # 1 # 62 / I 0 !0 0 U L 0 !0 (0 0 0 U # L L 1 0 # ! !0 0 0 , 0 $ L L 0 U eE 0 L0 " 0 # 62 $ 0 !0 # !0 > # 62 J A 1 0 0 !0 L 01 # %L B 01 10 !0 0 1 # # 0 1 ! 0 0 0 0 # # 0 # ! 0 a) Stabilitatea staticá a maçinii sincrone 0 L # P= f( ) M 1 A (0 0 A # 63 4 A 1 # A !< M1 = M + M 0 # 25 M1 0 / 0 M / 1 0 *8 0 0 # A # 1 4D D/ A / / M1 = M + M 0 2* > # 63 $ ! 0 M 1// D A 0 ! $ # 1 1 A) 0 ! < A M1 0 # M // 1 0 0 # # A 1 4R // = M + M0 1 B 0 # 1 B/ # # A A A A 0 // 0 R 0 26 7 25 1 0 # 0 / M1 D 0 0 # M1 / 1 / A 0 M /// 1 1 0 zona de funcþionare stabilá # 0 # = ( 0 ÷ / 2) zona instabilá = ( /2÷ ) # 63 63 " 0 A 0 # 0 0( !0 0 # o o 20 ÷ 30 B 10 ) P 1 K m = M max = = 2 ÷ 2,5 2+ PMN sin N *9 1.8. FUNCÞIONAREA GENERATORULUI SINCRON ÍN REGIM STAÞIONAR NESIMETRIC A A A B A B A $ 0 #= 0 # A A A # 0 < 1 0 0 A A 0) ! 1 A 0 B ! % # " 0 ! 1! Zd B Zi B 0 I A , I B , IC 0 U A, UB , UC # 0 A 0!0 Z d = R + jX d Z i = R + jX i " A 0 A " A !0 " A # 0 < I Al , I Bl , I Cl ) 0 0 Z h = R + jX h A 1 A 1 ) A B % 0B 0 A < ) ) 0 10 0 B 39 B ) B Zh # 4 " " " > A0 # 1 0 !0 # 1 0 < A 0 @A V a,V b,V c 1 6: Vh Vd Vi 11 1 =1a 3 1 a2 1 a a 1 a a2 0 Va Vb Vc Vh Vd Vi 2 8: ! ! Va 0 1 1 2 Vb = 1 a 1a Vc 8 F # 0 I Ai 3 5% I Ad 1.8.1. Regimul de scurtcircuit bifazat al generatorului sincron / 0 0 0 1 % AB1" # 0 # +5 0 0 0 1 A < > # +5 $ I A = 0 ) I B = I C = I k2 # U BC = U B U C = 0 8* A 0 0 0 1! 0 4 < 1 1 1 .U Ah = 3 (U A + U B + U C ) = 3 (U A = 2U B ) . 1 1 . 2 2 0U Ad = U A + aU B + a U C = U A + U B (a + a ) 3 3 . 1 1 . 2 2 .U Ai = 3 U A + a U B + aU C = 3 U A + U B (a + a ) / ( A 86 !0 0 U Ad = U Ai A ( ) [ 86 ( ) [ 6 1 1 . I Ah = 3 (I A + I B + I C ) = 0 . 1 1 1 . 2 2 2 82 0 I Ad = I A + a I B + a I C = I B (a a ) = I k 2 (a a ) 3 3 3 . 1 1 1 . 2 2 a) = I k 2 (a 2 a) . I Ai = 3 I A + a I B + a I C = 3 I B (a 3 / $ !0 0 ! 0 0 < I Ad = I Ai 83 ( A # 1 0 U U es = U + jX s I = U eE 88 4 0 A 0 4 0 0 B B 0! A< U Ad + jX d I Ad = U eA ( ) ( ) U Ai + jX i I Ai = 0 (0 8+ U Ah + jX h I Ah = 0 0 A 0< jX i I Ai = U eA A 83 U eA U eA I Ad = =j j( X d + X i ) Xd + Xi 1! !0 ! < U e0 I Ad = Xd + Xi jX d I Ad A 89 1! 89 A 9: 0< 9 4 95 > # +* ( # " <" A 0 ! 0 ) 65 0 # 10 0 / 2 A0 # +* - +* / A A " 01 4 # 0 B 0 # < ! 0 1 0 # # +* 0 1 0 9* I k 2 = I B = I Bd + I Bi + I Bh = $ 1! = a 2 I Ad + a I Ai + 0 = I Ad (a 2 A < a=e j 2 3 a) 1 1 / 1 3 +j 2 2 4 j 1 3 a2 = e 3 = j 2 2 9* AB 9 A < U eA I k 2 = j 3 I Ad = 3 Xd + Xi ! !0 ! U e0 Ik2 = 3 Xd + Xi = 96 9+ < 92 1.10. MOTORUL SINCRON 0 # (0 % % L M " L # B 1 !M # # A A 63 0 # / 0 ! > # 26 0 0 0 0 M 01 A0 ! 0 1 L 6* 0 ! 0 M0 !4 00M M = M arb 1 0 1.10.1.Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá # 26 " 10 ! "0 0 A 0 4B O 0 A 1! Ri u = $u e ( # A # A< d $u e = dt % 0 10 0 = E + ad + aq + % "% % ad " % aq " E # " < 6: 6 < 65 10 A A A A u ead U ead u eaq U eaq 0 ! % 0% 0% # ! A A) 0) 0) 0 6* % 66 % " % 0< u = u eE # / A # # 2+ = U = U eE A u e% + Ri 1 U e% + R I # ! !0 <0 # 0 0 0 % % 0 A U eE # L 0 0 0 0 !0 1 ! # 22 P1 = mUI cos " > 0 1 U L !0 1 0 L !0 ! 0 %L Q = mUI sin " < 0 B Q = mUI sin " > 0 B # 2+ # 22 66 0 > # 2+ ( # 0 0 !0 > # 22 ( # 0 0 !0 1.10.2. Bilanþul puterilor active la motorul sincron # 23 A A 0 A< P1 " 0 !0 0 A) PM " # 0 0) > # 23 7 A ! > # 28 $ A A 0 6+ P2 p m+ v PFe PCu " " " " 0 1 1 110 0 ! ) A) # ) $1 1 # Ecuaþia de miçcare ín regim staþionar 7 A ! < PM = P2 + p m +v + p Fe A A A 1 # A M = M2 + M0 Avantajele motorului sincron faþá de cel asincron " L0 " cos " ! L 1 = ! 0 0A ) " A 0 # %1 A % ! L Dezavantajele motorului sincron faþá de cel asincron " 0L # L 0) " L 0 0L 1 L) 1.10.3. Pornirea motorului sincron -! L 0 # L ! !0 A. Pornirea cu motor auxiliar / 0 % 0 L 01 L # B. Pornirea cu frecvenþá reglabilá -! ! L0 # 0 !L !A 0 .5"* G A B 10 0 n1 = (5 6) rot / min 6+ < 62 L0 ! L0 0 0 L 0 0, # 62 0 ( 01 0 B L L 0 ! 1 ! % A 0 ! 0 !L 0 0 L !L 0 L L !A 0 C. Pornirea ín asincron 4 0 0 0 10 01 colivie de pornire 04 B 10 A 0 B # 1 !B 0 1 ! A A ! B # 0 # M as 1 /B =# A 0 n = 0,9 0,95 n1 1 0 L M as = M rez 01 0 %A - M #0 L L ! Ms! 0 A $ 0 0 ! M %A A1 A0 @ 1 M L 0 0 , L 1 1 L %L4 %0 L # 0 0 # 0% '1 0 0A < a) Se scurtcircuiteazá ínfáçurarea de excitaþie 0 110 %A ! 0 %A 0! B # ! 0 0 B # 1 !B 0 !0 4 1 A0 A< 63 n2 = /B /B 10 - 60 f 2 60sf 1 nn = = n1 1 = n1 n1 p p A0 A nd = n + n2 = n1 !0 B # ! A0 A ni = n n 2 = 2n n1 = 2n1 (1 s ) n1 A B A 0 .: + A ! 0 0 n < 63 68 / Md < = n1 (1 2 s ) ! 0 69 ># 3 / %A 01 (0 01 ) "1 0 Ms 0 B0 4 7 % =# A 1 A 0 0 A 7 % < "1 0 0 0 A 0 01 0 0 A ! A A n = 0,5n1 0 A 1 0! A 0 = #0 1 4 ( 0 % b) Se lasá deschisá ínfáçurarea de excitaþie 68 0 01 1 0 %0 A& 0 0! 0 c) Se conecteazá ínfáçurarea de excitaþie pe o rezistenþá 01 0 %A 0! Rs = (8 10) Rex ! 10 %A ! Mi # 3 Md 0 $ ! 01 0 A 1 4 ! 1 4 A 0 1 0 10 0 # A0 A ! 1.10.4. Caracteristicile de funcþionare ale motorului sincron 4 < 1U = ct. . +: P, I , M , n, 6 , cos " = f ( P2 ) 0 f = ct. . I = ct. /E 1# 3* > # 3* / n, M , 6, I = ...
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