Bio Midterm Review II

Bio Midterm Review II - Bio Midterm Review II Chapter 10...

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Bio Midterm Review II Chapter 10 The most important fuels are sugars Plants make their own sugars through photosythesis requires CO2 Animals eat other organisms o Sugar molecules are broken down into CO2 and H2O This energy is stored in ATP and NADPH o Catabolism - break down process which uses enzymes to break down molecules. ADP to ATP o Digestion occurs in the lysosome Stage 1: Digestive enzymes reduce polymeric molecules into mono sub units: Proteins into amino acids Fats into Fatty Acid and glycerol Polysaccharides – simple sugars Stage 2: Cytosol to mitochondria Glycolysis converts each molecule of glucose into two smaller molecules pyruvate . The pyruvate is then transported to the matrix of the mitochondria. The
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mitochondria converts the pyruvate into Co2 and acetyl CoA which is also produced in the break down of fatty acids. Stage 3: Mitochondrion reactions. Coa is transferred acetyl group to a molecule called the oxaloacetate to form citrate. Then the citric acid cycle creates NADH which are passed along the mitochondrial inner membrane called the electron transport membrane. The energy released creates ATP and consumes O2. During glycolsis six carbon atoms are cleaved to two molecules pyruvate Two molecules of ATP are used to drive the conversion however later four molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule broken down. o One molecule of glucose is converted to fructose, 1, 6-biphosphate o 1 6-biphosphate is converted to two molecules of glyceraldhyde 3- phosphate o In the conversion of the two molecules of glyceraldhyde 3-phosphate to pyruvate 4 ATP molecules are released. o The ATP gain for one molecule of glucose is 2 ATP. o 2 NADH which oxidizes NAD+ are also produced Fermentations- the regeneration of NAD+ to sustain glycolsis NAD+ Regeneration NADH + 2H reacts with the two pyruvate that is converted to 2 lactate to make 2 NAD+ molecules
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Citric Acid Cycle- the Acetyle CoA are passed through the inner mitochondria membrane and undergoes electron transport. 3 NADH molecules are produced with one FADH2 molecule. Products CO2 Chapter 14 Electron transport chain - Energy of electrons is used to pump potons across the membrane. To create a gradient, the ion gradients can be stored by producing ATP from ADP. Drives most of the production of ATP in the cell. Chemiosmotic Coupling- A) membrane transport process B) Chemical Bond Forming Reaction Reactants NADH form 1/2O2 + H2O Respiratory chain – contains NADH dehydrogenase complex, cytochrome b-1 complex, cytochrome oxidase complex. NADH dehydrogenase – converts NADH to NAD+ causing an H+ protein to cross the membrane. Cyto-chrome b1 complex triggered by the
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This note was uploaded on 07/19/2010 for the course BE 211 taught by Professor Steffan during the Spring '10 term at BU.

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Bio Midterm Review II - Bio Midterm Review II Chapter 10...

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