chapter4 - Chapter4 TheLawsofMotion ClassicalMechanics...

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    Chapter 4 The Laws of Motion
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    Classical Mechanics Describes the relationship between the  motion of objects in our everyday world and  the forces acting on them Conditions when Classical Mechanics does  not apply Very tiny objects (< atomic sizes) Objects moving near the speed of light
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    Forces Commonly imagined as a force as a push or  pull on some object Vector quantity May be a  contact force  or a  field force Contact forces result from physical contact  between two objects Field forces act between disconnected objects
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    Contact and Field Forces
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    Fundamental Forces Types Strong nuclear force Electromagnetic force Weak nuclear force Gravity Characteristics All field forces Listed in order of decreasing strength Only gravity and electromagnetic in mechanics
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    Sir Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727 Formulated basic  concepts and laws  of mechanics Universal  Gravitation Calculus Light and optics
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    Newton’s First Law An object moves with a velocity that is  constant in magnitude and direction,  unless acted on by a nonzero net force The net force is defined as the vector sum  of all the external forces exerted on the  object
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    External and Internal Forces External force Any force that results from the interaction  between the object and its environment Internal forces Forces that originate within the object itself They cannot change the object’s velocity
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    Inertia Is the tendency of an object to continue  in its original motion In the absence of a force Thought experiment Hit a golf ball Hit a bowling ball with the same force The golf ball will travel farther Both resist changes in their motion
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    Mass A measure of the resistance of an  object to changes in its motion due to a  force The larger the mass, the less it accelerates  under the action of a given force SI units are kg Scalar quantity
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    Newton’s Second Law The acceleration of an object is directly  proportional to the net force acting on it  and inversely proportional to its mass.   Can also be applied three-dimensionally or m m α = F a F a r r r r
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    Units of Force SI unit of force is a Newton (N) US Customary unit of force is a pound  (lb) 1 N = 0.225 lb See table 4.1 2 s m kg 1 N 1
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