chapter9 - Chapter9 SolidsandFluids StatesofMatter Solid...

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    Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids
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    States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
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    Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in  specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about  equilibrium positions Can be modeled as  springs connecting  molecules
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    More About Solids External forces can be applied to the  solid and compress the material In the model, the springs would be  compressed When the force is removed, the solid  returns to its original shape and size This property is called  elasticity
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    Crystalline Solid Atoms have an  ordered structure  This example is salt Gray spheres  represent Na +  ions Green spheres  represent Cl -  ions
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    Amorphous Solid Atoms are arranged  almost randomly Examples include  glass
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    Liquid Has a definite volume No definite shape Exists at a higher  temperature than solids The molecules “wander”  through the liquid in a random  fashion The intermolecular forces are  not strong enough to keep the  molecules in a fixed position
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    Gas Has no definite volume Has no definite shape Molecules are in constant random  motion The molecules exert only weak forces  on each other Average distance between molecules is  large compared to the size of the  molecules
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    Plasma Gas heated to a very high temperature Many of the electrons are freed from the  nucleus Result is a collection of free, electrically  charged ions Plasmas exist inside stars
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    Types of Matter Normal matter About 5% of total matter Dark matter Affects the motion of stars in galaxies May be as much at 25% of total matter Dark energy Accounts for acceleration of the expansion of the  universe May be as much as 70% of all matter
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    Deformation of Solids All objects are deformable It is possible to change the shape or size (or  both) of an object through the application of  external forces When the forces are removed, the object  tends to its original shape An object undergoing this type of deformation  exhibits  elastic behavior
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    Elastic Properties Stress  is the force per unit area causing the  deformation Strain  is a measure of the amount of  deformation The  elastic modulus  is the constant of  proportionality between stress and strain For sufficiently small stresses, the stress is directly  proportional to the strain The constant of proportionality depends on the  material being deformed and the nature of the  deformation
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    Elastic Modulus The elastic modulus can be thought of 
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chapter9 - Chapter9 SolidsandFluids StatesofMatter Solid...

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