Apostolic Sucession- Idea that Christianity should relate to the apostles, who were
handpicked by Jesus.
Thus, anyone picked by the apostles is indirectly picked by Jesus, and
So, some people would want church leaders, such as bishops, deacons, etc. to be
picked by those picked by those… by Jesus.
This is the idea of Apostolic succession, with
roots in the noncanonical letter 1 Clement, possibly written by Clement, the third bishop of
the Church in Rome.
Apparently, the Church in Corinth’s elders had been overthrown, and
Clement is mad because he thinks the writings of the apostles and their successors come
Also, there is the idea that things taught now about Jesus should be the same as
what the apostles taught, even though many years have passed.
Torah- First five books of Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, and
Numbers, which Moses was traditionally thought to have written, or alternately the Law of
God given to Moses.
Means “guidance” or “direction,” but often translated as “law.”
The second of three major sections of the “Tanakh,” or the Hebrew
Divided into 2 parts, Former prophets (Joshua through Kings) and later prophets,
which are mainly prophecies in the form of biblical poetry.
8 books total.
The third part of the Tanakh, featuring 11 books.
level less divine than the prophecies of the Nevi’im.
Tanakh- Hebrew bible, or Old Testament.
Divided into the above 3 parts, each part slightly
less inspired than the one preceding it.
24 books total.
Synagogue- A Jewish place of worship and prayer.
From Greek word for “gathering
Started by Jews in the Diaspora, who obviously couldn’t go to the temple all the
Instead of performing sacrifices, Jews in the synagogues discussed the Torah and
prayed to the God of Israel.
Pharisees- Best known, least understood.
Began during Maccabean period, and wrote
many of their own laws to try to clarify ambiguities in the Law of the Old Testament.
very politically powerful until after 70 C.E.
At this time, didn’t hear about “Pharisees” and
“Sadducees,” but just “Rabbis.”
Did believe in the afterlife.
Teachers of the Torah.
Attacked in parts of the New Testament, especially in Matthew.
Sadducees- No remaining literary works from Sadducees.
Real Power Players in Palestine
in Jesus’ day.
Most Sadducees were priests.
The Sanhedrin- the Jewish council- was made
up primarily of Sadducees.
Didn’t believe in the afterlife- either soul perishes with body or