2-2-10-PDF_40305 - Review Gluconeogenesis Oxaloacetate is...

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is the starting material for gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis Review
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Gluconeogenesis is the process whereby precursors such as , , , and are converted to glucose Gluconeogenesis Review
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Review
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Several steps are different so that control of one pathway does not inactivate the other. However many steps are the same. Three steps are different from glycolysis. 1. Pyruvate to PEP 2. Fructose 1,6- bisphosphate to Fructose-6-phosphate 3. Glucose-6-Phosphate to Glucose Review Gluconeogenesis is NOT just the reverse of glycolysis
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Three steps of interconversions are catalyzed by different enzymes Review
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Review
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Lipids Lecture 5 Fourth major group of molecules found in all cells 1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4. Lipids
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1. Lipids are the major constituents of all membranes in all cells. 2. This class of biological molecules includes the hydrophobic fats , oils and waxes . 3. Many intra- and intercellular signaling events involve lipid molecules Lipids
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1. Lipid Classification A. Fatty Acids B. Triglycerides C. Glycerophospholipids D. Sphingolipids E. Steroids and other lipids 2. Lipid Bilayers Why and How they form lipid mobility Outline
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1. Lipid Classification A. Fatty Acids B. Triglycerides C. Glycerophospholipids D. Sphingolipids E. Steroids and other lipids 2. Lipid Bilayers Why and How they form lipid mobility Outline
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Fatty acids consist of the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) arranged as a carbon chain skeleton with a carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end. Saturated fatty acids have all the hydrogen that the carbon atoms can hold, and therefore, have no double bonds between the carbons. Monounsaturated fatty acids have only one double bond. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one double bond. Fatty acids
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Butyric Acid Butyric acid (butanoic acid) is one of the saturated short- chain fatty acids responsible for the characteristic flavor of butter. This image is a detailed structural formula explicitly showing four bonds for every carbon atom and can also be represented as the equivalent line formulas: CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH or CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 COOH Example
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symbolic name common name systematic name Fatty acids can be named in many ways
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Table 9-1
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Common Fatty Acid (C12-C24)
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The numbers at the beginning of the names indicate the locations of the double bonds. The carbon of the carboxyl group is carbon number one. Greek numeric prefixes such as di , tri , tetra , penta , hexa , etc ., are used as multipliers and to describe the length of carbon chains containing more than four atoms. Systematic name
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Thus, " 9,12-octadecadienoic acid " indicates that there is an 18-carbon chain ( octa deca ) with two double bonds ( di en ) located at carbons 9 and 12 , with carbon 1 constituting a carboxyl group ( oic acid ). The structural formula corresponds to: CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH=CHCH 2 CH=CHCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH Systematic name 9,12-octadecadienoic acid 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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In this textbook (Voet)… 16:1 n -7 numbers (16) of C atoms and double bonds (1) the position of the last double- bonded C atom counting from the methyl terminal ( w ) end.
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linoleic acid 18:2 n -6 oleic acid 18:1 n -9 1 6 5 4 3 2
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This note was uploaded on 07/20/2010 for the course BCHS BCHS 3305 taught by Professor Fujita during the Spring '10 term at University of Houston.

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2-2-10-PDF_40305 - Review Gluconeogenesis Oxaloacetate is...

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