Study Guide for Test 3

Study Guide for Test 3 - Chapter 7 In 1915 William Joseph...

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Chapter 7 In 1915 William Joseph Simmons revived the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Atlanta. In 1919 he hired Edward Y. Clarke, a former journalist and wartime fund raiser for the Salvation Army and the Red Cross, and his partner, Bessie Taylor, to revitalize the organization and increase membership. The Klan organized a bureau of lecturers to deliver speeches laced with name calling. The tactics worked. What did the newspaper do? New York World - First and most comprehensive journalistic crusade in defiance of the KKK Opening article - KKK's growth = financial scam Series continued for 3 weeks To guarantee that the series held the public's attention, editors packaged each installment with compelling artwork The paper contacted New York public officials and forced them to go on the record either opposing or supporting the KKK Ended its campaign with a summary of KKK violence Soon discovered that its campaign had backfired - gave the KKK a tremendous boost / described (in detail) the elements of the KKK that potential members found so appealing
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Gave the KKK its first national publicity (free of charge) Won Pulitzer prize for public service in 1922 Memphis Commercial Appeal - Criticized the KKK by characterizing it as a profit- making scam Condemned the KKK's use of violence as a means of terrorizing the city's African-Americans, Catholics and Jews More effective than the editorials were the front-page cartoons that portrayed KKK members as cowardly fiends hiding behind masks and bed sheets as they prayed upon the powerless War intensified when the KKK became the key issue in the 1923 city election As election neared, KKK leaders descended on the city / intimidation tactics grew with the KKK's Tri-State American newspaper Chaos on election day / KKK members distributed literature outside every polling place KKK was defeated by Mayor Paine Won Pulitzer prize for public service in 1923 Montgomery Advertiser - Grover Cleveland Hall = editor opposed flogging Editorials recounted the appalling details of specific incidents Violence could be stopped if a state law were passed to
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prohibit people from wearing masks Reprinted the statements of outrage that began to appear in the northern press Hall reproduced each negative characterization of Alabama along with his own comments about how the KKK was damaging the state's reputation Hall succeeded in stirring public sentiment to the point that the state legislature could no longer ignore the KKK's history of violence / representatives introduced anti-mask bills - DEFEATED Hall won the Pulitzer prize in 1928 KKK decline is because of its violence, politics, and exploitative leadership / and its failure to produce the results its followers were promised Much of the press either supported the KKK or remained silent on the topic / a handful of newspapers crusaded against the KKK with all of their might 1921 - Anti-KKK campaign began with a blockbuster expose by the New York World 1923 - Memphis Commercial Appeal
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Study Guide for Test 3 - Chapter 7 In 1915 William Joseph...

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