Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Overview The Molecules of Life • • • • The critically

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Overview: The Molecules of Life • • • • The critically important large molecules of all living things fall into four main classes: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids M acro m ol e c ul e s: A gi a n t m ol e c ul e for m e d b y t h e joinin g of s m all er m ol e c ul e s, u s u al b y a c o n d e n s a tio n r e a c tio n. Polys a c c h a ri d e s, pr o t ei n s, a n d n u cl eic a ci d s a r e m a c r o m ol e c ul e s . C ar b o h y dr a t e s Prot ei n s Nucl eic a ci d s • • • - T h e a r c hit e c t ur e of a lar g e biolo gic al m ol e c ul e h el p s e x pl ain h o w t h a t m ol e c ul e work Co nc e p t 5. 1: Macro m ol e c ul e s a r e p oly m e r s, b uilt fro m m o n o m e r s • Car b o h y dr a t e s , pr o t ei n s, a n d n u cl eic a ci d s a r e c h ai n-lik e m ol e c ul e s c all e d p oly m e r s Poly m e r s: A lon g m ol e c ul e c o n sis tin g of m a n y si mil ar or id e n tic al m o n o m e r s link e d togeth er C ov al e n t b o n d link a g e s M ono m e r s: Th e s u b u nit t h a t s e r v e s a s t h e b uildin g block of a p oly m e r A. T h e Sy n t h e si s a n d Br e a k d o w n of Poly m e r s 1. T h e cl a s s e s of p oly m e r s diff er in t h e n a t u r e of t h eir m o n o m e r s; c h e mic al m e c h a ni s m w hic h c ells m a k e a n d br e a k d o w n p oly m e r s a r e b a sic ally t h e s a m e in all c a s e s 2. Co n d e n s a tio n r e a c tio n: A r e a c tio n in w hic h t w o m ol e c ul e s b e c o m e c o v al e n tly b o n d e d e a c h o t h e r t hr o u g h t h e los s of a s m all m ol e c ul e, u s u ally w a t e r, in w hic h c a s e it is al s o c all e d a ehydration reaction d • • Monomers are connected by this reaction Each monomer contributes either hydroxyl(OH) or hydrogen(H) in the bond • Dehydration process is facilitated by enzymes (A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction) 3. Hydrolysis: A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water, functioning in disassembly of polymers to monomers • • Means “to break using water” literally Example: digestion B. The Diversity of Polymers • Polymers are constructed from only 40 to 50 common monomers and some others that occur rarely ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/21/2010 for the course PHYS 2212 taught by Professor Lasater during the Spring '10 term at Albany State University.

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