formal_report - AbstractThis experiment sets out to...

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Abstract- This experiment sets out to determine the identity of three unknown organic compounds within a mixture. This is done through a series of separations and identification techniques, such as fractional distillation, refractive index analysis, various chemical tests, and an infrared analysis. The three compounds of unknown mixture #131 were found to be Diethylamine, 2-butanol and 2-Octanone. Diethylamine 2-Butanol 2-Octanone Figure 1. Structures of the compounds present in unknown mixture #131 Introduction- For the separation part of this experiment fractional distillation is used. This technique separates the compounds by there boiling points. This is done through a distillation apparatus, as seen in figure 2. The distillation apparatus basically heats the mixture until components of the mixture evaporate; leaving the less volatile compounds in the distilling flask. The vaporized compounds pass through a fractionating column (not
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shown in the diagram), where it may condense and re-evaporate off of the numerous projections within the column. Passing the vapor through the column is done to further differentiate the compounds present in the vapor, i.e. excited molecules from less volatile compounds in the vapor are given a chance to release their excess energy and condense back into the mixture whiles the more volatile compounds are separated. This results in the vapor leaving the column being richer in the more volatile compound. The evaporated compound is then passed through a condenser condensed where it is condensed and collected in a receiving flask (White and Buchanan, 2003). The distillates should be taken when the temperature indicated by the thermometer above the fractionating column, remains at a constant temperature, this temperature is the boiling point of the distillate (Hill and Holman, 1998). For the other compounds to be separated the temperature is increased. In order to ensure purity of the distillates a chaser is taken. A chaser is the distillate taken when the temperature of the vapor is changing i.e. the distillate taken whiles the less volatile compound is almost gone from the mixture and the other compound starts to evaporate. The chaser could also be used to recover more compound if needed, since it is basically a mixture of two compounds; This is achieved by distilling the chase (White and Buchanan, 2003). Repeat distillation of the distillates would give a better yield of each compound (Hill and Holman, 1998). For this process to accurately separate the compounds, the boiling points of each compound should differ by 40°C or more (White and Buchanan, 2003). Since the compounds are now separated identification tests can be done. The first of these identification tests should be the Infrared Analysis. This is because this is the
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single most important analysis in identifying the compounds, since it gives you information about the functional groups present on the compounds (Jones, 2000). The IR spectrum involves the absorption of photons (1-10 Kcal/mol) by
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This note was uploaded on 07/21/2010 for the course SCIENCE CHEM 2204 taught by Professor Buist during the Spring '10 term at Carleton.

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formal_report - AbstractThis experiment sets out to...

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