4_chemistry - BIO 1140 TOPIC 4 SLIDE 1 TOPIC 4 ATOMS BONDS...

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1 BIO 1140 TOPIC 4 - SLIDE 1 ¾ ‘SPECIAL’ NATURE OF CELL CHEMISTRY ¾ ATOMS ¾ CHEMICAL BONDS ¾ CARBON ¾ WATER (pp. 22 – 25) TOPIC 4: ATOMS, BONDS, CARBON AND WATER BIO 1140 TOPIC 4 - SLIDE 2 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE ¾ Life obeys all natural laws. ¾ Life as we know it is carbon (C) based. ¾ organic chemistry = biological chemistry = biochemistry ¾ All of life’s chemical reactions occur in aqueous solutions ¾ Life is a cold temperature phenomenon. ¾ The chemistry of life is immensely complex. ¾ Biochemistry is dominated by cyclopean polymers. BIO 1140 TOPIC 4 - SLIDE 3 ATOMS ¾ An atom is the smallest particle that retains the properties of the element ¾ ¾ H (1:0), C (6:6), N (7:7), O (8:8) (protons:neutrons) ¾ Electrons - one electron for each proton ¾ proton + ; electron - CARBON
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2 BIO 1140 TOPIC 4 - SLIDE 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONS ¾ not in fixed orbits (in orbitals arranged in shells) ¾ electrons always seek most stable arrangement ¾ i.e. fill innermost shell ¾ most stable when outer shell is complete ¾ HELIUM (2), NEON (2 + 8), ARGON (2 + 8 + 8) ¾ 2 + 8 + 8 +18 + 18 ¾ H (-1), C (-4), N (-3), O (-2) BIO 1140 TOPIC 4 - SLIDE 5 COVALENT BONDS ¾ COVALENT BONDS: formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons (non-polar covalent: electrons shared equally ¾ polar covalent: electrons shared unequally
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4_chemistry - BIO 1140 TOPIC 4 SLIDE 1 TOPIC 4 ATOMS BONDS...

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