week 1 - 1 - Chemistry S-20ab Chemistry E-2a: Lecture 1...

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The Organic Chemist’s Periodic Table As of Tuesday, June 16 : chemists have identified 47,923,347 organic and inorganic substances ; 35,000,716 are available commercially! (www.cas.org/cgi-bin/cas/regreport.pl) “Learning organic chemistry is hard work. The amount of information out there is as close to infinite as makes no difference. .. The best solution is to make sure that we understand what we learn. .. develop a feel for the way molecules behave .” —A.J. Kirby, Cambridge UK Chemistry S-20ab Week 1 2
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The Hydrogen Atom The hydrogen atom is the simplest atom. What is the structure of the hydrogen atom? It turns out that, contrary to our expectations, the electron in a hydrogen atom can have only certain allowed energies, and it can make transitions between these energy levels only in discrete amounts. We say that the energy levels of an electron in a hydrogen atom are quantized . Erwin Schrödinger realized that an electron confined to an atom might behave like a wave confined to a string. He was able to derive the wavefunction that describes the behavior of an electron in an atom. Each possible solution of his famous equation corresponds to a standing wave , and is referred to as an orbital . An orbital is a three- dimensional region of space which defines where an electron can be found. The Schrödinger Equation requires three quantum numbers. What are these quantum numbers, what are the valid integer values they can take, and what do they represent? n Name: Possible Values: Represents: l Name: Possible Values: "The Chemist's Code": Represents: m l Name: Possible Values: Represents: Reading : Section 1.6 Chemistry S-20ab Week 1 3
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The s orbitals and Radial Nodes The s orbitals are spherical in shape. ( s = spherical) How can we imagine the distribution of electrons in an s orbital? 1s 2s 3s What do the nodes signify? What do the two colors (shades of gray?) signify? What is the relationship between energy, principal quantum number n , and the nodes? Reading : Section 1.6 Chemistry S-20ab Week 1 4
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Chemistry S-20ab Week 1 5 The p orbitals and Angular Nodes The p orbitals are shaped differently, with two lobes of electron density ( p = peanut?) How many p orbitals exist for a given principal quantum number n ? A 2 p orbital should have one node. Is it a radial node? Why might we call this an angular node? What is the significance of the colors (shading)? How is the shading related to the nodes? What is the relationship between the quantum number l and the number of angular nodes? Reading : Section 1.6
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Electrons in Orbitals The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two electrons can have identical sets of quantum numbers. Each orbital can contain up to two electrons
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week 1 - 1 - Chemistry S-20ab Chemistry E-2a: Lecture 1...

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