week 2 - 3 - anno - Chemistry S-20ab Chemistry E-2a Lecture...

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Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols, and Sulfides H 3 C Br C H 2 Br H 3 C C H Br H 3 C CH 3 C Br H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 H 3 C OH C H 2 OH H 3 C C H OH H 3 C CH 3 C OH H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 Alkyl halides: a primary alkyl bromide a secondary alkyl bromide methyl bromide a tertiary alkyl bromide methyl alcohol a primary alcohol a tertiary alcohol Alcohols: a secondary alcohol Common nomenclature & substitutive nomenclature: CH 2 Cl H 3 C CH 2 Cl Cl H Cl H H H H Cl C Cl Cl H CH 2 OH H 3 C H OH H H H H H 3 C C CH 3 CH 3 OH CH 2 SH H 3 C CH 2 H 3 C CH 2 O CH 3 CH 2 H 3 C ethyl chloride chloroethane CH 3 S methylene chloride dichloromethane allyl chloride 3-chloropropene O O chloroform trichloromethane ethyl alcohol ethanol ethyl mercaptan ethanethiol O H 2 C CH 2 allyl alcohol propen-3-ol tert -butanol 2-methyl-2-propanol diethyl ether furan tetrahydrofuran (THF) ethylene oxide oxirane O H 2 C CH ethyl methyl sulfide an epoxide styrene oxide 2-phenyloxirane Reading : Section 8.1 Chemistry S-20ab Week 2 102
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Solvents in Organic Chemistry The vast majority of organic reactions are carried out in a solvent , a liquid that is used to dissolve the reactants, reagents, and products. Each solvent can be characterized based on three properties: whether it is polar , whether it is protic , and whether it is a donor : H 3 C CH 3 H 3 C O CH 3 H 3 C CH 3 O polar or nonpolar : polar - dielectric constant greater than 15 H 3 C O H donor or nondonor : nonpolar - dielectric constant less than 15 nondonor - solvent cannot share (donate) lone pair donor - solvent can share (donate) lone pair a few examples: hexane: aprotic, apolar, nondonor diethyl ether: aprotic, apolar, donor acetone: aprotic, polar, donor
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