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BIO s320 Summer 2010 - Sample questions - Key

BIO s320 Summer 2010 - Sample questions - Key - CELL...

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CELL BIOLOGY (BIO s320) SUMMER 2010 Sample questions Key _______________________________________________________________________ _ 1. (i) (a) Genes specific to the function of these organelles. (b) Genes for transcription and translation (c) Such organelles should have a double membrane. The inner membrane would be descended from the original membrane of the ancient ingested procaryote. (ii) Mitochondria and chloroplasts 2. (i) Horizontal transfer of genes is the transfer of genes between species. (ii) Procaryotes 3. These genes are less likely to be transferred laterally than genes involved in metabolic reactions. The products of informational genes, e.g., rRNAs, are parts of large complexes whose components must interact with many other molecules. It is unlikely that a foreign gene product could become integrated into the existing machinery. Thus, with these genes, any variations would be more likely to be a result of random mutation, which allows phylogenetic relationships to be determined without the muddying influence that would result from lateral gene transfer. 4. Finding the presence of similar genes in very diverse groups of organisms; tracing evolution of genes; finding the minimal set of genes that are required in a living organism; or any other explanation that makes sense. 5. The primary structure of a protein is linked by covalent peptide bonds. The secondary structure is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the peptide backbone. The tertiary structure is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions between the nonpolar side groups and hydrogen bonds between polar side groups.
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