Glossary - acetabulum The semicircular bone ridge on the outer surface of the pelvis This is the socket into which the ball at the tip of the

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acetabulum The semicircular bone ridge on the outer surface of the pelvis. This is the “socket” into which the “ball” at the tip of the femur (thigh bone) fits to make the hip joint. Acheulean tools This set of stone tools - including the "cleaver" and "handaxe" - were produced by Homo erectus. See panel B in Figure 9-1 for an example of this class of tool. Examples will also be shown in lecture. These tools require sophisticated manufacturing techniques and are thus far beyond the capabilities of non- human animals. However, these tools are much less sophisticated than those made later by behaviorally modern humans. Moreover, remarkably, these tools continued to be made in essentially unchanged form for well over 1 million years by these animals! Such a period of adaptive stasis is profoundly foreign to us as modern humans. adaptive revolution Refers to the fact that the 2 million years of human history have consisted of periods of adaptive stasis – often very long – followed by periods of dramatic increase in adaptive sophistication. We will explore the evidence that these adaptive revolutions result from the following sequence of events. A novel weapon technology allows cost-effective enforcement of kinship-independent social cooperation in enlarged coalitions resulting in increase access to extragenetic information producing increased adaptive sophistication. We will argue that all the major adaptive revolutions of the human story – including the behaviorally modern human revolution, the various agricultural revolutions, the rise of the archaic state and the rise of the modern state are all examples of adaptive revolutions that follow this causal sequence. adaptive stasis Refers to the tendency of a species to remain largely unchanged over an extended period of times (even miÌlions of years). This is often seen and is thought to reflect the fact that such an organism has achieved a local adaptive optimum that cannot be improved upon given the various existing constraints on evolution by natural selection and its local situation. We will explore the evidence that adaptive stasis in human history results from a prolonged period in which human coalition size is unchanged. Periods of adaptive stasis are ended by adaptive revolutions whose origin and details are predicted by the coalitional enforcement hypothesis.
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adolescence Another uniquely human life history feature. It refers to the fact the humans delay reaching full adult size until late (beginning of adolescence). Then following an adolescent growth spurt producing nearly full adult size, humans continue social and sexual maturation over a period of several additional years. This adaptation probably reflects several things. One of them is providing additional time for the acquisition of uniquely large amounts of extragenetic information that human coalitions have. africanus
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2010 for the course BIOLOGY 358 taught by Professor Mo during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Glossary - acetabulum The semicircular bone ridge on the outer surface of the pelvis This is the socket into which the ball at the tip of the

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