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Unformatted text preview: MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF BASIC ENGLISH compiled and edited by
Deniz Atikoğlu & Pınar Tankut READING
FOR THE INTERMEDIATE GROUP compiled and edited by Deniz Atikoğlu &
Pınar Tankut Ankara 2005 Middle East Technical University
Department of Basic English CONTENTS
Practice 3 CULTURE
Communication and Culture
Are We Really That Different? 1
6 THEME 2
Practice 6 SPORTS
Giovanna Amati: One Fast Woman
The Art of Thrill
Young Women in Extreme Sports 9
23 THEME 3
Practice 8 MONEY
Attitudes towards Money
How the IMF Became Part of the Problem
Where to Invest Your Money
Men, Women and Money
The Esperanto of Money
How Can We Change Consumerism? 26
26 THEME 4
Practice 5 CHAOS................................................ ..........
Changes in World Climate
Chaos Theory and Education
Chaos Theory 50
62 THEME 5
Practice 8 GENETICS
Embryo Screening is Here
The Human Genome Project
Behind the Science of Mad-Cow Disease
Playing God - A Moral Necessity?
Logical Sequence 64
47 THEME 6
Practice 2 TRIBES
A Land of Immigrants
A Good Life
A Tribe Faced with Extinction
The Amish and the Kibbutzim
Indigenous Australia 90
A Familiar Story
The Shame and Pain of Sudden Ruin.......................... 115 THEME 8 MARRIAGE
Marriage: East and West
Keeping Marriages Alive 117
120 THEME 9
Practice 4 123
Mother Tongue or Father Tongue?
The Eskimo Language
Our Languages Are Dying
Language and Sex MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
(E) Shorter Text Comprehension
(F) Vocabulary. 134
164 REFERENCES 193 THEME 1: CULTURE
1Each society has its own beliefs, attitudes, customs, behaviors, and social habits. These give people a sense of
who they are, how they should behave, and what they should or should not do. These 'rules' reflect the 'culture' of
2People become conscious of such rules when they meet people from different cultures. For example, in some
cultures, being on time can mean turning up several hours late for an appointment, even for a business meeting;
in others, 3 p.m. means 3 p.m. Also, the rules about when to eat vary from culture to culture. Many North
Americans and Europeans have three mealtimes a day and organize their timetable around them. In some
countries, on the other hand, people often do not have strict rules like this - people eat when they want to, and
every family has its own timetable. 3When people visit or live in a country for the first time, they are often surprised at the differences that exist
between their own culture and the culture in the other country. The most common way of comparing two cultures
is in terms of their differences - not their similarities. For some people, traveling abroad is an exciting experience;
for others though, cultural differences make them feel uncomfortable, frightened, or even insecure. This is known
as 'culture shock.' 4Here are several things to do in order to avoid culture shock: Avoid quick judgments; try to understand people in
another culture by looking at things from their own point of view. Try to become more aware of what is going on
around you. Don't think of your cultural habits as 'right' and other people's as 'wrong.' Be willing to try new things
and to have new experiences. I. Match the paragraphs with the headings below.
_____ Culture shock
_____ How to avoid culture shock
_____ Cultural differences II. Answer the following questions.
1. What shouldn't you do when traveling to or living in another country for the first time? 2. What should you do when traveling to or living in another country for the first time? III. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
_____1. In some cultures, it is not unusual to be late for a business meeting.
_____2. North Americans do not have strict rules about mealtimes.
_____3. People usually compare the similarities between two cultures.
_____4. Cultural differences make everybody feel frightened. 1 Word/Phrase
attitude Part of
noun [C, U] custom noun [U, C] reflect verb [T] conscious adjective vary verb [I] exist verb [I] compare verb [T] judgment noun [C,U] judge
point of view verb [T] aware adjective
(reluctant) adjective noun phrase
[C] Pattern + Definition + Collocations Context
word/phrase is used
(an) attitude (to/towards sb/sth): a Each society has its own beliefs,
feeling or opinion about sth or sb, or a way attitudes, customs, behaviours,
of behaving that is caused by this It's
and social habits.
often very difficult to change people's
attitudes. to have a
Each society has its own beliefs,
something that is done by people in a
attitudes, customs, behaviours,
particular society because it is traditional
and social habits.
reflect sth: to show or be a sign of the
These 'rules' reflect the 'culture' of
nature of sth or of sb's attitude or
(be) conscious of (doing) sth / (be) People become conscious of such
conscious that ...[not before noun]:
rules when they meet people from
aware of sth; noticing sth
vary (from sth to sth): to change or be
Also, the rules about when to eat
different according to the situation
vary from culture to culture.
[not used in the progressive tenses] to be
When people visit or live in a
real; to be present in a place or situation
country for the first time, they are
often surprised at the differences
that exist between their own
culture and the culture in the other
compare A and B / compare A with/to
The most common way of
B: to examine or judge two or more
comparing two cultures is in terms
things in order to show how they are
of their differences — not their
similar to or different from each other
an opinion that you form about sth after
... : Avoid quick judgements; try to
thinking about it carefully; the act of
understand people in another
making this opinion known to others to
make a judg(e)ment about sth
...; try to understand people in
the particular attitude or opinion that sb
another culture by looking at things
has about sth
from their own point of view.
(be) aware (of sb/sth) / (be) aware
(that ...): if you are aware of sth, you notice
it, especially because you can see, hear,
feel or smell it
(be) willing (to do sth) [not usually
before noun]: ready to do something
without being forced 2 Try to become more aware of
what is going on around you. Be willing to try new things and to
have new experiences. PRACTICE 2
COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE 1As the basic building blocks of communication, words communicate meaning, but culture is the most
important factor that influences the meanings of words. Meaning is in the person, not in the word,
and each person is the product of a particular culture. Thus, if we are willing to learn to communicate
well in a foreign language, we must understand the culture that affects the language. In other words,
culture and communication are inseparably linked. You can't have one without the other because
they are interconnected. Culture gives meaning and provides the context for communication, and the
ability to communicate allows us to act out our cultural values and to share our language and our
culture. 2But our own native language and culture are so much a part of us that we take them for granted.
When we travel to another country, we don't think much about our language and culture but we carry
our own cultural views along with our passports and luggage; we never leave them behind. Using our
own culture as the standard to judge other cultures is called ethnocentrism, and although they are
unintentional, our ethnocentric ways of thinking and acting often get in the way of our understanding
other languages and cultures. In other words, although we don't plan to be ethnocentric, we think and
behave in such a way that it becomes difficult for us to understand other languages and cultures. The
willingness to understand a different culture is the cure for cultural blindness. Studying a new
language provides the opportunity to develop different views because we also learn the context of the
culture that the language belongs to. 3When linguists study a new language they often compare it to their own, and consequently they gain
a better understanding of not only the new language, but of their own language as well. Students who
study a foreign language will also learn more about their own native tongue by comparing and
contrasting the two languages. You can follow the same comparative method in learning more about
culture - your own, as well as others'. Remember that each culture has developed a set of patterns
that are right and appropriate for that culture. If people do things differently in another culture, they
are not 'wrong' - they are just different and suitable for that particular culture. Always thinking that
'culturally different' means 'culturally wrong' will only promote intercultural misunderstanding and this
is what we should all try to avoid. I. Mark the best choice.
1. To influence (para.l) is to__________________.
c)be the product of
d)affect 2. Para. 1, when things are 'inseparably linked', they___________________.
a)provide a context
c)share the same culture
d)are able to communicate 3. Para. 2, to 'take' something 'for granted' means____________________.
a)to carry it with you
b)not to leave it behind
c)not to think much about it
d)to be a part of it
3 4. Para. 2, 'unintentional' means
5. . Par. 3, 'appropriate' means_________________.
6. The main idea of the first paragraph is that____________________. a)communication and culture are closely related
b)people are the products of the cultures they live in
c)people should share their cultural values
d)communication makes it possible to share cultures
7. The main idea of the second paragraph is that___________________.
a)it is possible to prevent cultural blindness
b)we carry our cultural values everywhere we go
c)our own cultural views may prevent us from understanding other cultures
d)people who study a new language should learn the culture it belongs to 8. The main idea of paragraph 3 is that__________________.
a)while studying a new language, you gain better understanding of your native language
b)every culture has a set of patterns that are different from others
c)to understand our culture better, we should learn more about our native tongue
d)to avoid intercultural misunderstanding, we should realize that people from different cultures
behave differently II. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F). ______1, Words are the building blocks of communication.
______2. Cultural blindness is understanding other languages and cultures.
______3. Linguists are people who study languages.
______4. We should try to promote intercultural misunderstanding. III.
1. Answer the following questions about the passage.
What is ethnocentrism? 2. How can learners of a foreign language learn more about their own languages? 4 Word/Phrase Pattern + Definition + Collocations Context in which the word/phrase is
used communicate sth: to transmit or reveal a
feeling or thought by speech, writing, or
gesture so that it is clearly
understood As the basic building blocks of
communication, words communicate
meaning, but culture is the most
important factor ... cannot be separated or cannot be
considered separately In
communication are inseparably linked.
Culture gives meaning and provides the
context for communication, and the
ability ... communicate Part of
verb [T] inseparable adjective inseparably
verb [T] to produce a useful result, opportunity
We are hoping the enquiry will provide
an explanation for the accident. native adjective l[only before noun] your native country, town, But our own native language and
etc. is the place where you were born
culture are so much a part of us that we
2 native New Yorker/population/
take them for granted.
a person or people who come from or have
always lived in a particular place
3 native language/tongue
the language you spoke when you first learned
to speak take sb/sth
for granted idiom to be so used to sb/sth that you do not
But our own native language and culture
recognize their true value any more and do not are so much a part of us that we take
show that you are grateful
them for granted. develop verb [T] develop sth: to start to have a skill, ability,
quality, etc. that becomes better and stronger appropriate adjective correct or suitable for a particular time, Remember that each culture has
situation, or purpose
developed a set of patterns that are
At an appropriate moment I'll offer the right and appropriate for that culture.
visitors some coffee.
[* for]: Your clothes are hardly
appropriate for a job interview. promote verb [T] promote sth: to help sth to happen or develop Always thinking that 'culturally different'
means 'culturally wrong' will only
promote intercultural misunderstanding
and this is what we should all try to
avoid. 5 Studying a new language provides the
opportunity to develop different views
because we also learn the context of the
culture that the language belongs to.
Remember that each culture has
developed a set of patterns that are
right and ... PRACTICE 3
ARE WE REALLY THAT DIFFERENT?
1Certain lessons have to be learned the hard way. Some well meaning articles and presentations on cultural
differences have a potential to do more harm than good and may not be as amusing. They present too many
generalizations or quite a distorted view. Both of these certainly lead to misunderstandings. Differences between
people within any given nation or culture are much greater than differences between groups. Education, social
standing, religion, personality, belief structure, past experience, affection shown in the home, and a myriad of other
factors will affect human behavior and culture. 2Sure there are differences in approach as to what is considered polite and appropriate behavior both on and off
the job. In some cultures "yes" means, "I hear you", while in others it means "I agree". In Turkish culture, for
example, "yes" means the latter. Length of pleasantries and greetings before getting down to business; level of
tolerance for being around someone speaking a foreign (not-understood) language; politeness measured in terms
of gallantry or etiquette (e.g., standing up for a woman who approaches a table, yielding a seat on the bus to an
older person, etc.); and manner of expected dress are all examples of possible cultural differences and traditions. 3In Mexico it is customary for the arriving person to greet the others. For instance, someone who walks into a
group of persons eating would say provecho (enjoy your meal). In Chile, women often greet both other women and
men with a kiss on the cheek. In Russia women often walk arm in arm with their female friends. Paying attention to
customs and cultural differences can give someone outside that culture a better chance of assimilation or
acceptance. Ignoring them can get an unsuspecting person into trouble. 4There are cultural and ideological differences and it is vital to have an understanding about a culture's customs
and ways. Aaron Pun, a Canadian ODCnet correspondent, wrote: "In studying cross cultural differences, we are
not looking at individuals but a comparison of one ethnic group against others. Hence, generalization cannot be
avoided." Another correspondent explained the human need to categorize. True and true, but the danger comes
when we act on some of these, especially when they are based on faulty observation. Acting on generalizations
about such matters as eye contact, personal space, touch, and interest in participation can have serious negative
5Stereotyping can have intense negative effects, especially when educators or managers make fewer attempts to
involve those of other cultures because they have been taught not to expect participation! Or do not realize there
may be something wrong when a student or employee of a different ethnicity makes little eye contact with them. 6As we interact with others of different cultures, there is no good substitute for receptiveness to interpersonal
feedback, good observation skills, effective questions, and some common sense. There is much to be gained by
observing how people of the same culture interact with each other. Making a genuine effort to find the positive
historical, literary, and cultural contributions of a society; learning a few polite expressions in another person's
language; and showing appreciation for the food and music of another culture can have especially positive effects. 7The varieties between cultures and peoples are real and can add richness and humor to life. My assertion is that
people everywhere have much in common, such as a need for affiliation and love, participation, and contribution.
When the exterior is peeled off, there are not so many differences after all. 6 I. What do the following refer to in the text?
1.these (para. 1) : 2.the latter (para. 2) : 3.it (para. 4) II. : Find words in the text which mean the following. Do not change the form of the words and write ONE WORD ONLY. 1.an indefinitely large number (para.l) (n) :____________________________________
2.giving up (para. 2) (v) :________________________________ 3.claim, belief (para. 7) (n) :__________________________ III. Answer the following questions.
1. Why is it important to accept customs of a different culture? 2. Why are generalizations inevitable? 3. How can stereotyping have positive effects? 4. How do the differences affect life? 7 Word Part of
Speech Pattern + Definition + Collocations distort verb [T] distorted adjective assimilation noun [U] verb assimilate [T, I] ignore verb [T] to deliberately pay no attention to
Ignoring them can get an unsuspecting
something that you have been told or that you person into trouble.
know about As far as homelessness goes,
the vast majority of people Just sit back and
ignore it. correspondent noun [C] someone who is employed by a
Aaron Pun, a Canadian
newspaper or a television station etc to report correspondent, wrote...
news from a particular area or on a particular
subject Our correspondent in South Africa
sent this report. involve verb [T] to ask or allow someone to take part in
involve sb in sth: Try to involve as
many children as possible in the game. ...educators or managers make fewer
attempts to involve those of other
cultures because they have been taught
not to expect participation! ethnicity noun [U] an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from
racial or cultural ties Ethnicity has a strong
influence on community status relations. Or do not realize there may be
something wrong when a student or
employee of a different ethnicity makes
little eye contact with them. willing to consider new ideas or listen
to someone else's opinions
You might find them in a more
receptive mood tomorrow.
[+ to]: receptive to new ideas and
values ...there i...
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- Spring '16
- Test, Giovanna Amati