Outline Chapter 44 - consumes the most energy and which...

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ABE 2062 Biology for Engineers – Outline Chapter 44 April 7, 2009 CHAPTER 44 44.1 Please define or explain the following terms: osmoregulation, excretion, osmolarity, isoosmotic, hyperosmotic, hypoosmotic, osmoconformer, osmoregulator, stenohaline, euryhaline, desiccation, transport epithelium, fitrate, renal artery, renal vein, nephron, Bowman’s capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct. 44.2 Define the unit of osmolarity: a milliOsmoles per liter (mOsm/L) is equivalent to a total solute concentration of 10 -3 M. The osmolarity of human blood is about 300 mOsm/L. The osmolarity of seawater is about 1000 mOsm/L. Make sure you understand what is a hyperosmotic and a hypoosmotic environment. 44.3 Please list the three different major nitrogenous wastes animals produced. Which one
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Unformatted text preview: consumes the most energy and which consumes the least? 44.4 Figure 44.10 give you a very brief idea about the excretory systems, please be able to describe it by the four different steps. 44.5 What are the differences between the cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons? 44.6 Please really pay attention to understand Fig. 44.16 to understand the countercurrent multiplier systems. Read The Two-solute Model in p. 966 – 968 to understand how the kidney can keep a high concentration of salt. Pay attention to understand how the vasa recta can deliver nutrient to the system without disrupting the high salt concentration format? 44.7 Review Chapter 43 in p. 972-973....
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