Ch 7.3 - Ch 7 . The Nervous System The Central and the...

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Ch 7 . The Nervous System The Central and the Peripheral Nervous Systems I. The Spinal Cord Structure, injury II. The Brain Medulla, Pons, Cerebellum, Midbrain, Diencephalon, Cerebrum 3 deep nuclei: basal ganglia, amygadala, hippocampus 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal CT, PET, fMRI Split-brain Disorders of the nervous system III. The Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic system: fight or flight responses Parasympathetic system Stress responses
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I. The spinal cord
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The spinal cord connects to almost every organ The spinal cord extends from the brain into the vertebral column and is the main route of communication between the brain and the body. Figure 7.20 Spinal cord 7-48
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• The axial skeleton provides bony protection for the CNS. • What protects the CNS from the axial skeleton? – Meninges and Cerebrospinal fluid • Meninges are a series of three connective tissue coverings surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. • Cerebrospinal fluid nourishes the neurons and absorbs shock. Figure 7.12 Meninges 7-35 II. The Brain
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Meninges Dura mater is a tough connective tissue layer immediately beneath the skull. The arachnoid is a thin and fragile layer that looks like a spider web. – Cerebrospinal fluid flows between the strands. Pia mater is the inner layer of the meninges and is attached to the neurons. Meningitis is an inflammation in these three layers of connective tissue. 7-36
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Figure 7.13 CSF formation and flow 7-38
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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) • There are four ventricles (cavities) in the brain filled with CSF. • CSF is constantly produced and absorbed, maintaining a constant flow. • CSF formation helps maintain the blood-brain barrier, which permits only certain ions and nutrients to cross the vessels. – Bacteria and viruses have difficulty entering the brain, but, when they do enter, antibiotics have a hard time getting to the bacteria. 7-37
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Blood-Brain Barrier The tight seal of cells that lines the blood vessels in the brain is known as the blood- brain barrier. Researchers are trying to sneak therapies past the barrier to the brain tissue by hitching therapeutic agents onto molecules that already are allowed to slip through or with compounds that pry open the seals. Illustration by Lydia Kibiuk, Copyright © 1999 Lydia Kibiuk.
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7-41
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7-42 Brain stem : Medulla + Pons + Midbrain
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Cerebellum • Maintains muscle tone, posture and balance, and fine- tuning conscious and unconscious movement • Portion of the brain posterior to the brain stem • Hindbrain : Medulla + Pons + Cerebellum Figure 7.16 The cerebellum 7-43
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Figure 7.17 The diencephalon 7-45 •The diencephalon functions mainly as a relay center for sensory information from the body and motor responses from the cerebrum (including centers for visual and auditory startle reflexes) •The thalamus and hypothalamus are located in the diencephalon
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Figure 7.18 Cerebrum with lobes and general functions of lobes indicated
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This note was uploaded on 07/25/2010 for the course BISC 104LXG at USC.

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Ch 7.3 - Ch 7 . The Nervous System The Central and the...

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