M Long A1.Asian tsunami-earthquake_1

M Long A1.Asian tsunami-earthquake_1 - Assignment #1....

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Assignment #1. Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Submit as email text to bmcnulty@csudh.edu . No attachments, please! EARTHQUAKE 1. An epicenter is the point on the Earth’s surface directly above the hypocenter, or focus, of an earthquake (3). The epicenter of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 2004 was located at 3.316°N latitude, 95.854°E longitude (1). 2. A hypocenter is the point within the Earth’s crust where an earthquake occurs. It is also called the focus of an earthquake (3). The hypocenter of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake was approximately 30 kilometers or 19 miles below sea level (1). 3. The earthquake that generated the Sumatra-Andaman tsunami was initially reported as moment magnitude 9.0. Two months later, it was revised to magnitude 9.3. Other organizations have estimated the earthquake between 9.1 and 9.3 (1). 4. Stick slip “refers to the fast movement that occurs between two sides of a fault” when they become unstuck. The rock on each side becomes distorted but holds its position until the earthquake occurs (4). 5. The fault surface ruptured in two phases over a period of several minutes. During the first phase, the fault ruptured at a speed of about 2.8 kilometers per second (6,300 mph). During the second phase, the rupture continued northward at about 2.1 kilometers per second (4,700 mph). 6. The fault ruptured in two phases that took place 100 seconds apart (1). 7. The fault rupture duration was approximately 3 to 4 minutes although the exact length of time that people felt shaking varied depending on their location (6). 8. Prior to the 2004 earthquake, the last earthquake to occur along the Sunda megathrust took place in 1861 implying that 143 years of stress had built up along the fault to generate the energy for the event (5). The energy released on the Earth’s surface by the
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M Long A1.Asian tsunami-earthquake_1 - Assignment #1....

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