Ch.12 Assignment - Define the following terms 1 2 3 civil...

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Define the following terms. 1. civil liberties Freedoms guaranteed to individuals. Civil liberties declare what the government cannot due in contrast to civil rights that declare what the governments must do or provide. 2. civil rights Powers or privileges guaranteed to individuals and protected from arbitrary removal at the hands of government or individuals. 3. establishment clause The first clause in the First Amendment which states that “Congress shall make n law respecting an establishment of religion” and which forbids government establishment of religion. Together with the free-exercise clause ensures that the government can neither promote nor inhibit religious beliefs or practices. 4. free-exercise clause The second clause in the First Amendment that states that “Congress shall make no law… prohibiting the free exercise [of religion]” and which prevents the government from interfering with the exercise of religion. Together with the establishment clause ensures that the government can neither promote nor inhibit religious beliefs or practices. 5. strict scrutiny A standard used by the Supreme Court in deciding whether a law or policy is to be adjudged constitutional. To pass strict scrutiny, the law or policy must be justified by a “compelling governmental interest,” as well as being the least restrictive means for achieving that interest. 6. free-expression clauses The press and speech clauses of the First Amendment: “Congress shall make no law… abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.” 7. prior restraint Censorship before publication. 8. clear and present danger test A means by which the Supreme Court has distinguished between speech as the advocacy of ideas, which is protected by the First Amendment, and speech as incitement, which is not protected. 9. public figures People who assume roles of prominence in society or thrust themselves to the forefront of public controversy - officials, actors, writers, televisions personalities, and others. 10. bill of attainder A law that pronounces an individual guilty of a crime without a trial. 11. ex post facto law A law that declares an action to be criminal after it has been performed.
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