Ch.13 Assignment - Define the following terms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7...

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1. equality of opportunity The idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life. 2. equality of outcome The concept that society must ensure that people are not equal, and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status to achieve economic and social equality. 3. invidious discrimination Discrimination against persons or groups that works to their harm and is based on animosity. 4. civil rights Powers or privileges guaranteed to individuals and protected from arbitrary removal at the hands of government or individuals. 5. racism A belief that human races have distinct characteristics such that one’s own race is superior to, and has a right to rule, others 6. poll tax A tax of $1 or $2 on every citizen who wished to vote, first instituted in Georgia in 1877. Although it was no burden on most white citizens, it effectively disenfranchised blacks. 7. racial segregation Separation from society because of race. 8. separate-but-equal doctrine The concept that providing separate but equivalent facilities for blacks and whites satisfies the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. 9. desegregation The ending of authorized segregation, or separation by race. 10. de jure segregation Government-imposed segregation. 11. de facto segregation Segregation that is not the result of government influence. 12. civil rights movement The mass mobilization during the 1960s that sought to gain equality of rights and opportunities for blacks in the South and, to a lesser extent, in the North, mainly through nonviolent unconventional means of participation. Martin Luther King, Jr., was the leading figure and symbol of the civil rights movement, but it was powered by the commitment of great numbers of people, black and white, of all sorts and stations in life. 13. boycott A refusal to do business with a firm, individual, or nation as an expression of disapproval or a a means of coercion. 14. civil disobedience The willful but nonviolent breach of laws that are regarded as unjust. 15. protectionism The notion that women must be protected from life’s cruelties; until the 1970s, the basis for laws affecting women’s civil rights. 16. Nineteenth Amendment The amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1920, that assures women of the right to vote. 17. sexism Invidious sex discrimination. 18. equal rights amendment (ERA) A failed constitutional amendment introduced by the National Women’s Party in 1923, declaring that “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex.” 19. affirmative action Any of a wide range of programs, from special recruitment efforts to numerical quotas, aimed at expanding opportunities for women and minority groups. Answer as completely as you can.
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This note was uploaded on 07/24/2010 for the course PS 001 taught by Professor Graham during the Summer '08 term at Los Angeles Southwest College.

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Ch.13 Assignment - Define the following terms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7...

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