Chapter_23_Reproductive%20System_with%20Answers

Chapter_23_Reproductive%20System_with%20Answers -...

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1 Reproductive System Male gametes: spermatozoa Female gametes: ova Gametes are produced via meiosis Zygote: an ovum + a sperm How many chromosomes in a gamete? a zygote? 23; 46 Gonads? in males? in females? gonads: primary reproductive organs in males: testes in females: ovaries Secondary/Accessory reproductive organs? internal ducts & exocrine glands which secrete Embryonic Development At 5-6 weeks the sexes are undifferentiated Embryonic Development External genitals develop from the same embryonic structures Internal genital ducts develop from separate embryonic structures Wolffian ducts male’s rete testis, efferent ducts, Mullerian ducts female’s vagina, cervix, uterus, & fallopian tubes ‒ ducts which are not used degenerate Male Reproductive System: Fig. 23-1 Primary organs: the testes Secondary/Accessory organs Internal secondary organs Epididymis (pair) Ductus/Vas deferens (pair) Ejaculatory urethra Seminal vesicles (pair) Prostate gland (one) Bulbourethral glands (pair) External secondary organs ducts glands
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2 Descend of the Testes Testes descend into the scrotum 1-2 months before birth Pass through the inguinal canal guided by a fibromuscular cord , the gubernaculum The Testes Functions? Anatomy of the Testes Spermatic cord contains the vas deferens/ductus deferens, , and ‒ a heat control system of veins which absorb heat from incoming arteries & radiates it away from the testes to help maintain the optimum temp. for sperm production (~ 3 ºC below body temp.) Tunica albuginea : fibrous capsule surrounding each testis ‒ capsule extensions (septa) divide the testis into lobules, each has 1-4 tightly coiled seminiferous tubules , the sperm- forming factories Cells of the Seminiferous Tubules Interstitial/ Leydig cells ? between the seminiferous tubules produce testosterone Spermatogonia ? diploid germ cells lining the outside walls of the seminiferous tubules develop mature spermatozoa Sertoli/ Sustentacular /Nurse cells? secrete a protein that binds testosterone in the seminiferous tubules Testosterone The main male androgen produced by Interstitial/Leydig cells (a steroid hormone derived from cholesterol) Functions of testosterone? maintenance of male reproductive structures development of male secondary sexual characteristics development of spermatozoa stimulation of the descent of testes promotion of protein synthesis Anabolic Testosterone Abuse
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Chapter_23_Reproductive%20System_with%20Answers -...

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