Lecture 2 text-only version

Lecture 2 text-only version - History 20 Lecture 2:...

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History 20 Lecture 2: Politics in the Modern World I. Foundational principles and movements The Enlightenment in Europe (17 th and 18 th centuries) laid the groundwork for the emergence of modern political theory and organization. The essential building blocks of Enlightenment thought included the following ideas: The universe is governed by science and man, not God. Monarchies (governments ruled by kings and aristocrats) should be challenged. The individual and individual self-realization were vital. The realization of individual rights was to be paramount in any society and political system. Human progress is inevitable. Important Enlightenment thinkers included: John Locke, 1632-1704, British – espoused the new idea that rulers should not have absolute power; rather, the ideal in political organization would be a “social contract” between the ruler and those over whom he rules Voltaire , 1694-1778, French – opposed the Catholic church and its close tie to the French state; the individual should determine his own relationship to God and nature and in turn, redefine his relationship to the monarch stemming from this new relationship with God Political movements based on Enlightenment thought included: The American and French Revolutions, 1776 and 1789 Liberal revolutions against Spanish and Portuguese monarchies in Latin America – 1776 to 1826 Keep in mind that: When the rights of the “people” were discussed by those influenced by the
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This note was uploaded on 07/26/2010 for the course HIS hist 20 taught by Professor Ying during the Spring '09 term at Riverside Community College.

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Lecture 2 text-only version - History 20 Lecture 2:...

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