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Lecture 8 text-only version - History 20 Lecture 8 Fascist...

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History 20 Lecture 8 Fascist Movements First slide: A 1930s painting in the sentimental realist style depicting German peasants. German fascists saw the peasant as the repository of age-old traditions and as representatives of “the eternalness of a racial stock of unique character.” I. What is Fascism? Components of a definition: A philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Fascism/Fascism_def_char_hx.html An extreme form of nationalism that played on fears of communism and rejected individual freedom, liberal individualism, democracy, and limitations on the state. http://www.nelson.com/nelson/polisci/glossary.html [Although this link is now broken, I still like the points made by this short statement. For multiple, more complex statements that play on these basic ideas, see http://www.answers.com/topic/fascism ] The word comes from [the Italian] fascio (plural: fasci ), which may mean "bundle," as in a political or militant group or a nation, but also from the fasces (rods bundled around an axe), which were an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of magistrates. Fascism is typified by totalitarian attempts to impose state control over all aspects of life: political, social, cultural, and economic. The fascist state regulates and controls (as opposed to nationalizing) the means of production. Fascism exalts the nation , state , or race as superior to the individuals, institutions, or groups composing it. Fascism uses explicit populist rhetoric; calls for a heroic mass effort to restore past greatness;
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