Lecture 11 text-only version

Lecture 11 text-only version - History 20 Lecture 11 World...

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History 20 Lecture 11 World War II in Asia I. Background on the development of Japan/China relations In 1911 in China, there was a revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. Sun Yatsen led the disaffected intellectuals who wanted a republican form of government and helped to found China’s first political party, the Guomindang (GMD). But Yuan Shikai, a military man, became the first president of the new Republic of China. In 1915, Japan made its infamous “Twenty-one Demands” on China, threatening China with military action if they did not accede to a bigger role for Japanese advisors and military presence in China. Yuan Shikai secretly agreed to most of the demands. Yuan died in 1916 and warlords began to run rampant throughout the land. Meanwhile, on May 4, 1919, with anti-Japanese sentiment growing in China, intellectuals and students launched a major protest in Beijing against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles through which Japan received former German concessions in north China, a major part of its Twenty-one Demands. Chinese nationalism, especially an anti-Japanese nationalism, was growing. Recall that the Russian Revolution in 1917 also had an impact on how Chinese intellectuals viewed the world. Many took an increasing interest in Marxism and in Lenin’s views on Imperialism as the “highest stage” of capitalism. Some believed that China might join Russia as the “first wave” of countries that turned to socialism. Many essays on this topic were published in the influential journal New Youth (La Jeunesse). Soon, several of China’s newly nationalistic intellectuals took the next logical
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Lecture 11 text-only version - History 20 Lecture 11 World...

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