History 20 – Lecture 19 Final Chapters of the Cold War EraI. The rise of the Soviet Union to superpower status•Bases for the rise ––History of the CPSU as a vanguard party–Consolidation of power under Stalin – the purges–Stalin’s astute maneuvering during the high tide of diplomacy during WWII–Concentration on heavy industry and building an infrastructureII. Policies toward surrounding people and countries•The Soviet Union was built as a great defensive fortress with two walls around it designed to be impregnable.•The first, interior wall, was composed of “soviets” bound together under the central leadership of Moscow.•The second, exterior wall was a set of what became known as “satellite” states of the Soviet Union.•In Eastern Europe, these were the countries that the Soviet Union insisted join the Warsaw Pact.•The goal was to be surrounded by other socialist countries who would not impede the Soviet Union’s ability to have wide economic and political influence in the region. The history of Russia’s invasion from the west prompted the development of this strategy.III. The Khrushchev years, 1953-1964•Under Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet Union reached a zenith of power in the late 1950s and early 1960s.•Khrushchev became well-known for his desire to loosen some of the tight controls Stalin had instituted.•Khrushchev directly criticized Stalin in a famous speech in 1956 for his use of “police measures” to quell political dissent. •Space technology propelled the Soviet Union to a global leadership position – Sputnik was the world’s first successful space satellite, launched in 1957.