Lecture 20 text-only version

Lecture 20 text-only version - History 20 Lecture 20...

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History 20 Lecture 20 Islamic Civilization and Legacies of Imperialism I. The Rise of Islamic Civilization From the 7 th century, with the founding of Islam in the Middle East, Islamic civilization flourished. Its characteristics were: Belief in one God (monotheistic); built on collective piety of individuals faithful to God Like Christians and Jews, Muslims claimed descent from the prophets found in the Old Testament; but like Jews, Muslims rejected the notion that Jesus was the savior promised by God. They claimed a purer, more correct interpretation of the message of the prophets. Islam became a “universal” religion much like Christianity and Buddhism, spreading widely, with the promise that salvation was possible through belief in the religion’s central tenets. Islamic world in 751 Islam spread so far that it challenged Christianity to its west as the dominant religious belief system. During the 12 th and 13th centuries, Christian and Muslim armies challenged each others’ claims over territory and people; Christian kingdoms in the west organized the Crusades to drive back Muslim armies to take back the Holy Land (centered on the city of Jerusalem in Palestine) and to drive Muslims off the Iberian peninsula (where Portugal and Spain are located). Although the “reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula was successful, Islamic civilization had a lasting, powerful effect. The Ottoman Empire, founded by Turkish rulers in the late 13 th century, became a lasting governmental and societal framework throughout north Africa and the Middle East. Islamic communities also developed throughout much of South East Asia and as far away as China. II. The Ottoman Empire Under the Ottoman Turks, Islamic civilization reached its zenith. The Ottomans brought unity to a wide range of territory throughout the Middle East and northern Africa from 1300 onward. Ottoman rule was characterized by a relatively high degree of religious tolerance, with Christian and Jewish communities within the empire, and a wide range of ethnic and linguistic groups.
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With the advent of the New Imperialism in the 19 th century, much as we have seen elsewhere, new kinds of pressures were brought to bear upon Ottoman rule. Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, and Russia all arrived in the regions controlled
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Lecture 20 text-only version - History 20 Lecture 20...

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