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SIMPLE MACHINES NOTE B

# SIMPLE MACHINES NOTE B - SIMPLE MACHINES A machine is a...

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SIMPLE MACHINES A machine is a device that helps make work easier to perform. (Recall: Work = Force × Distance). A machine makes work easier to perform by accomplishing one or more of the following functions: 1) transferring a force from one place to another 2) changing the direction of a force 3) increasing the magnitude of a force 4) increasing the distance MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE : When a machine takes a small input force and increases the magnitude of the output force, a mechanical advantage has been produced. Simply put, the mechanical advantage (MA) of a machine is the ratio of the output force to the input force (this is the factor by which the machine multiplies any applied force). If a machine increases an input force of 20 N to an output force of 100 N , the machine has a mechanical advantage (MA) of 5. Mechanical advantage is also related to the input and output distances. NO machine can increase both the magnitude of the force and the displacement of the object at the same time. When a machine increases a force, there is ALWAYS a proportional decrease in the distance moved. This follows from the LAW OF CONSERVATION of ENERGY : ( )( ) ( )( ) W W F d F d input output input input output output = = = = F F d d MA output input input output . So if you increase the force by a factor of 5, then you decrease the output distance by this same factor. INCLINED PLANE : An inclined plane is an even sloping surface. The inclined plane may slope at any angle between the horizontal and the vertical. The inclined plane makes it easier to move a weight from a lower to higher elevation.

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SIMPLE MACHINES NOTE B - SIMPLE MACHINES A machine is a...

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